Can I download the blockchain separately? : Bitcoin

Technical: The Path to Taproot Activation

Taproot! Everybody wants to have it, somebody wants to make it, nobody knows how to get it!
(If you are asking why everybody wants it, see: Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?)
(Pedants: I mostly elide over lockin times)
Briefly, Taproot is that neat new thing that gets us:
So yes, let's activate taproot!

The SegWit Wars

The biggest problem with activating Taproot is PTSD from the previous softfork, SegWit. Pieter Wuille, one of the authors of the current Taproot proposal, has consistently held the position that he will not discuss activation, and will accept whatever activation process is imposed on Taproot. Other developers have expressed similar opinions.
So what happened with SegWit activation that was so traumatic? SegWit used the BIP9 activation method. Let's dive into BIP9!

BIP9 Miner-Activated Soft Fork

Basically, BIP9 has a bunch of parameters:
Now there are other parameters (name, starttime) but they are not anywhere near as important as the above two.
A number that is not a parameter, is 95%. Basically, activation of a BIP9 softfork is considered as actually succeeding if at least 95% of blocks in the last 2 weeks had the specified bit in the nVersion set. If less than 95% had this bit set before the timeout, then the upgrade fails and never goes into the network. This is not a parameter: it is a constant defined by BIP9, and developers using BIP9 activation cannot change this.
So, first some simple questions and their answers:

The Great Battles of the SegWit Wars

SegWit not only fixed transaction malleability, it also created a practical softforkable blocksize increase that also rebalanced weights so that the cost of spending a UTXO is about the same as the cost of creating UTXOs (and spending UTXOs is "better" since it limits the size of the UTXO set that every fullnode has to maintain).
So SegWit was written, the activation was decided to be BIP9, and then.... miner signalling stalled at below 75%.
Thus were the Great SegWit Wars started.

BIP9 Feature Hostage

If you are a miner with at least 5% global hashpower, you can hold a BIP9-activated softfork hostage.
You might even secretly want the softfork to actually push through. But you might want to extract concession from the users and the developers. Like removing the halvening. Or raising or even removing the block size caps (which helps larger miners more than smaller miners, making it easier to become a bigger fish that eats all the smaller fishes). Or whatever.
With BIP9, you can hold the softfork hostage. You just hold out and refuse to signal. You tell everyone you will signal, if and only if certain concessions are given to you.
This ability by miners to hold a feature hostage was enabled because of the miner-exit allowed by the timeout on BIP9. Prior to that, miners were considered little more than expendable security guards, paid for the risk they take to secure the network, but not special in the grand scheme of Bitcoin.

Covert ASICBoost

ASICBoost was a novel way of optimizing SHA256 mining, by taking advantage of the structure of the 80-byte header that is hashed in order to perform proof-of-work. The details of ASICBoost are out-of-scope here but you can read about it elsewhere
Here is a short summary of the two types of ASICBoost, relevant to the activation discussion.
Now, "overt" means "obvious", while "covert" means hidden. Overt ASICBoost is obvious because nVersion bits that are not currently in use for BIP9 activations are usually 0 by default, so setting those bits to 1 makes it obvious that you are doing something weird (namely, Overt ASICBoost). Covert ASICBoost is non-obvious because the order of transactions in a block are up to the miner anyway, so the miner rearranging the transactions in order to get lower power consumption is not going to be detected.
Unfortunately, while Overt ASICBoost was compatible with SegWit, Covert ASICBoost was not. This is because, pre-SegWit, only the block header Merkle tree committed to the transaction ordering. However, with SegWit, another Merkle tree exists, which commits to transaction ordering as well. Covert ASICBoost would require more computation to manipulate two Merkle trees, obviating the power benefits of Covert ASICBoost anyway.
Now, miners want to use ASICBoost (indeed, about 60->70% of current miners probably use the Overt ASICBoost nowadays; if you have a Bitcoin fullnode running you will see the logs with lots of "60 of last 100 blocks had unexpected versions" which is exactly what you would see with the nVersion manipulation that Overt ASICBoost does). But remember: ASICBoost was, at around the time, a novel improvement. Not all miners had ASICBoost hardware. Those who did, did not want it known that they had ASICBoost hardware, and wanted to do Covert ASICBoost!
But Covert ASICBoost is incompatible with SegWit, because SegWit actually has two Merkle trees of transaction data, and Covert ASICBoost works by fudging around with transaction ordering in a block, and recomputing two Merkle Trees is more expensive than recomputing just one (and loses the ASICBoost advantage).
Of course, those miners that wanted Covert ASICBoost did not want to openly admit that they had ASICBoost hardware, they wanted to keep their advantage secret because miners are strongly competitive in a very tight market. And doing ASICBoost Covertly was just the ticket, but they could not work post-SegWit.
Fortunately, due to the BIP9 activation process, they could hold SegWit hostage while covertly taking advantage of Covert ASICBoost!

UASF: BIP148 and BIP8

When the incompatibility between Covert ASICBoost and SegWit was realized, still, activation of SegWit stalled, and miners were still not openly claiming that ASICBoost was related to non-activation of SegWit.
Eventually, a new proposal was created: BIP148. With this rule, 3 months before the end of the SegWit timeout, nodes would reject blocks that did not signal SegWit. Thus, 3 months before SegWit timeout, BIP148 would force activation of SegWit.
This proposal was not accepted by Bitcoin Core, due to the shortening of the timeout (it effectively times out 3 months before the initial SegWit timeout). Instead, a fork of Bitcoin Core was created which added the patch to comply with BIP148. This was claimed as a User Activated Soft Fork, UASF, since users could freely download the alternate fork rather than sticking with the developers of Bitcoin Core.
Now, BIP148 effectively is just a BIP9 activation, except at its (earlier) timeout, the new rules would be activated anyway (instead of the BIP9-mandated behavior that the upgrade is cancelled at the end of the timeout).
BIP148 was actually inspired by the BIP8 proposal (the link here is a historical version; BIP8 has been updated recently, precisely in preparation for Taproot activation). BIP8 is basically BIP9, but at the end of timeout, the softfork is activated anyway rather than cancelled.
This removed the ability of miners to hold the softfork hostage. At best, they can delay the activation, but not stop it entirely by holding out as in BIP9.
Of course, this implies risk that not all miners have upgraded before activation, leading to possible losses for SPV users, as well as again re-pressuring miners to signal activation, possibly without the miners actually upgrading their software to properly impose the new softfork rules.

BIP91, SegWit2X, and The Aftermath

BIP148 inspired countermeasures, possibly from the Covert ASiCBoost miners, possibly from concerned users who wanted to offer concessions to miners. To this day, the common name for BIP148 - UASF - remains an emotionally-charged rallying cry for parts of the Bitcoin community.
One of these was SegWit2X. This was brokered in a deal between some Bitcoin personalities at a conference in New York, and thus part of the so-called "New York Agreement" or NYA, another emotionally-charged acronym.
The text of the NYA was basically:
  1. Set up a new activation threshold at 80% signalled at bit 4 (vs bit 1 for SegWit).
    • When this 80% signalling was reached, miners would require that bit 1 for SegWit be signalled to achive the 95% activation needed for SegWit.
  2. If the bit 4 signalling reached 80%, increase the block weight limit from the SegWit 4000000 to the SegWit2X 8000000, 6 months after bit 1 activation.
The first item above was coded in BIP91.
Unfortunately, if you read the BIP91, independently of NYA, you might come to the conclusion that BIP91 was only about lowering the threshold to 80%. In particular, BIP91 never mentions anything about the second point above, it never mentions that bit 4 80% threshold would also signal for a later hardfork increase in weight limit.
Because of this, even though there are claims that NYA (SegWit2X) reached 80% dominance, a close reading of BIP91 shows that the 80% dominance was only for SegWit activation, without necessarily a later 2x capacity hardfork (SegWit2X).
This ambiguity of bit 4 (NYA says it includes a 2x capacity hardfork, BIP91 says it does not) has continued to be a thorn in blocksize debates later. Economically speaking, Bitcoin futures between SegWit and SegWit2X showed strong economic dominance in favor of SegWit (SegWit2X futures were traded at a fraction in value of SegWit futures: I personally made a tidy but small amount of money betting against SegWit2X in the futures market), so suggesting that NYA achieved 80% dominance even in mining is laughable, but the NYA text that ties bit 4 to SegWit2X still exists.
Historically, BIP91 triggered which caused SegWit to activate before the BIP148 shorter timeout. BIP148 proponents continue to hold this day that it was the BIP148 shorter timeout and no-compromises-activate-on-August-1 that made miners flock to BIP91 as a face-saving tactic that actually removed the second clause of NYA. NYA supporters keep pointing to the bit 4 text in the NYA and the historical activation of BIP91 as a failed promise by Bitcoin developers.

Taproot Activation Proposals

There are two primary proposals I can see for Taproot activation:
  1. BIP8.
  2. Modern Softfork Activation.
We have discussed BIP8: roughly, it has bit and timeout, if 95% of miners signal bit it activates, at the end of timeout it activates. (EDIT: BIP8 has had recent updates: at the end of timeout it can now activate or fail. For the most part, in the below text "BIP8", means BIP8-and-activate-at-timeout, and "BIP9" means BIP8-and-fail-at-timeout)
So let's take a look at Modern Softfork Activation!

Modern Softfork Activation

This is a more complex activation method, composed of BIP9 and BIP8 as supcomponents.
  1. First have a 12-month BIP9 (fail at timeout).
  2. If the above fails to activate, have a 6-month discussion period during which users and developers and miners discuss whether to continue to step 3.
  3. Have a 24-month BIP8 (activate at timeout).
The total above is 42 months, if you are counting: 3.5 years worst-case activation.
The logic here is that if there are no problems, BIP9 will work just fine anyway. And if there are problems, the 6-month period should weed it out. Finally, miners cannot hold the feature hostage since the 24-month BIP8 period will exist anyway.

PSA: Being Resilient to Upgrades

Software is very birttle.
Anyone who has been using software for a long time has experienced something like this:
  1. You hear a new version of your favorite software has a nice new feature.
  2. Excited, you install the new version.
  3. You find that the new version has subtle incompatibilities with your current workflow.
  4. You are sad and downgrade to the older version.
  5. You find out that the new version has changed your files in incompatible ways that the old version cannot work with anymore.
  6. You tearfully reinstall the newer version and figure out how to get your lost productivity now that you have to adapt to a new workflow
If you are a technically-competent user, you might codify your workflow into a bunch of programs. And then you upgrade one of the external pieces of software you are using, and find that it has a subtle incompatibility with your current workflow which is based on a bunch of simple programs you wrote yourself. And if those simple programs are used as the basis of some important production system, you hve just screwed up because you upgraded software on an important production system.
And well, one of the issues with new softfork activation is that if not enough people (users and miners) upgrade to the newest Bitcoin software, the security of the new softfork rules are at risk.
Upgrading software of any kind is always a risk, and the more software you build on top of the software-being-upgraded, the greater you risk your tower of software collapsing while you change its foundations.
So if you have some complex Bitcoin-manipulating system with Bitcoin somewhere at the foundations, consider running two Bitcoin nodes:
  1. One is a "stable-version" Bitcoin node. Once it has synced, set it up to connect=x.x.x.x to the second node below (so that your ISP bandwidth is only spent on the second node). Use this node to run all your software: it's a stable version that you don't change for long periods of time. Enable txiindex, disable pruning, whatever your software needs.
  2. The other is an "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin Node. Keep its stoarge down with pruning (initially sync it off the "stable-version" node). You can't use blocksonly if your "stable-version" node needs to send transactions, but otherwise this "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node can be kept as a low-resource node, so you can run both nodes in the same machine.
When a new Bitcoin version comes up, you just upgrade the "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node. This protects you if a future softfork activates, you will only receive valid Bitcoin blocks and transactions. Since this node has nothing running on top of it, it is just a special peer of the "stable-version" node, any software incompatibilities with your system software do not exist.
Your "stable-version" Bitcoin node remains the same version until you are ready to actually upgrade this node and are prepared to rewrite most of the software you have running on top of it due to version compatibility problems.
When upgrading the "always-up-to-date", you can bring it down safely and then start it later. Your "stable-version" wil keep running, disconnected from the network, but otherwise still available for whatever queries. You do need some system to stop the "always-up-to-date" node if for any reason the "stable-version" goes down (otherwisee if the "always-up-to-date" advances its pruning window past what your "stable-version" has, the "stable-version" cannot sync afterwards), but if you are technically competent enough that you need to do this, you are technically competent enough to write such a trivial monitor program (EDIT: gmax notes you can adjust the pruning window by RPC commands to help with this as well).
This recommendation is from gmaxwell on IRC, by the way.
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Remote node rapidly cycling between connecting and disconnecting

I couldn't find a post where someone has asked about a similar issue, so hopefully someone can either point me in the right direction or knows how to resolve this issue!
I have a remote full node running as a Tor hidden service which is open to inbound connections (confirmed via bitcoin-cli getpeerinfo and also connects with my other wallet.
I pointed the Bisq client to my remote node as [address].onion:8333 and can see it will briefly connect but then disconnect again. It will then cycle through this connecting / dying / reconnecting endlessly.
A segment of the log output looks like this (I have redacted my precise onion address though I will probably cycle a new set of keys soon - just privacy reasons I don't want a paper trail associated with this account - if you need it to help provide support DM me):
Jul-17 11:16:40.318 [BlockingClient network thread for xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333] INFO o.b.c.l.DownloadProgressTracker: Chain download switched to [xxxxxxxxx.onion]:8333
Jul-17 11:16:40.399 [JavaFX Application Thread] INFO b.c.d.node.parser.BlockParser: Parsing 1 transactions at block height 633842 took 0 ms
Jul-17 11:16:40.619 [JavaFX Application Thread] INFO b.c.d.node.parser.BlockParser: Parsing 0 transactions at block height 633843 took 0 ms
Jul-17 11:16:40.814 [BlockingClient network thread for xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.PeerGroup: [xxxxxxxxx.onion]:8333: Peer died (0 connected, 0 pending, 1 max)
Jul-17 11:16:40.814 [BlockingClient network thread for xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.PeerGroup: Download peer died. Picking a new one.
Jul-17 11:16:40.814 [BlockingClient network thread for xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.PeerGroup: Unsetting download peer: [xxxxxxxxx.onion]:8333
Jul-17 11:16:40.815 [PeerGroup Thread] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.PeerGroup: Peer discovery took 5.431 μs and returned 0 items
Jul-17 11:16:40.815 [PeerGroup Thread] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.PeerGroup: Waiting 1500 msec before next connect attempt to [xxxxxxxxx.onion]:8333
Jul-17 11:16:42.058 [JavaFX Application Thread] INFO b.c.d.node.parser.BlockParser: Parsing 1 transactions at block height 633848 took 0 ms
Jul-17 11:16:42.216 [JavaFX Application Thread] INFO b.c.d.node.parser.BlockParser: Parsing 0 transactions at block height 633849 took 0 ms
Jul-17 11:16:42.316 [PeerGroup Thread] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.PeerGroup: Attempting connection to [xxxxxxxxx.onion]:8333 (0 connected, 1 pending, 1 max)
Jul-17 11:16:42.378 [JavaFX Application Thread] INFO b.c.d.node.parser.BlockParser: Parsing 0 transactions at block height 633850 took 0 ms
Jul-17 11:16:42.538 [JavaFX Application Thread] INFO b.c.d.node.parser.BlockParser: Parsing 0 transactions at block height 633851 took 0 ms
Jul-17 11:16:42.598 [BlockingClient network thread for xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.Peer: Announcing to xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333 as: /bitcoinj:0.14.7.bisq.1-SNAPSHOT/Bisq:1.3.5/
Jul-17 11:16:42.703 [JavaFX Application Thread] INFO b.c.d.node.parser.BlockParser: Parsing 1 transactions at block height 633852 took 0 ms
Jul-17 11:16:42.879 [BlockingClient network thread for xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.Peer: [xxxxxxxxx.onion]:8333: Got version=70015, subVer='/Satoshi:0.20.99/', services=0x1033, time=2020-07-17 11:16:41, blocks=639615
Jul-17 11:16:42.880 [BlockingClient network thread for xxxxxxxxx.onion:8333] INFO org.bitcoinj.core.PeerGroup: [xxxxxxxxx.onion]:8333: New peer (1 connected, 0 pending, 1 max)

and then will die and repeat the cycle etc.
Any ideas?
submitted by Athator to bisq [link] [comments]

Crypto-Powered - The Most Promising Use-Cases of Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

Crypto-Powered - The Most Promising Use-Cases of Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
A whirlwind tour of Defi, paying close attention to protocols that we’re leveraging at Genesis Block.
https://reddit.com/link/hrrt21/video/cvjh5rrh12b51/player
This is the third post of Crypto-Powered — a new series that examines what it means for Genesis Block to be a digital bank that’s powered by crypto, blockchain, and decentralized protocols.
Last week we explored how building on legacy finance is a fool’s errand. The future of money belongs to those who build with crypto and blockchain at their core. We also started down the crypto rabbit hole, introducing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi (decentralized finance). That post is required reading if you hope to glean any value from the rest of this series.
97% of all activity on Ethereum in the last quarter has been DeFi-related. The total value sitting inside DeFi protocols is roughly $2B — double what it was a month ago. The explosive growth cannot be ignored. All signs suggest that Ethereum & DeFi are a Match Made in Heaven, and both on their way to finding strong product/market fit.
So in this post, we’re doing a whirlwind tour of DeFi. We look at specific examples and use-cases already in the wild and seeing strong growth. And we pay close attention to protocols that Genesis Block is integrating with. Alright, let’s dive in.

Stablecoins

Stablecoins are exactly what they sound like: cryptocurrencies that are stable. They are not meant to be volatile (like Bitcoin). These assets attempt to peg their price to some external reference (eg. USD or Gold). A non-volatile crypto asset can be incredibly useful for things like merchant payments, cross-border transfers, or storing wealth — becoming your own bank but without the stress of constant price volatility.
There are major governments and central banks that are experimenting with or soon launching their own stablecoins like China with their digital yuan and the US Federal Reserve with their digital dollar. There are also major corporations working in this area like JP Morgan with their JPM Coin, and of course Facebook with their Libra Project.
Stablecoin activity has grown 800% in the last year, with $290B of transaction volume (funds moving on-chain).
The most popular USD-pegged stablecoins include:
  1. Tether ($10B): It’s especially popular in Asia. It’s backed by USD in a bank account. But given their lack of transparency and past controversies, they generally aren’t trusted as much in the West.
  2. USDC ($1B): This is the most reputable USD-backed stablecoin, at least in the West. It was created by Coinbase & Circle, both well-regarded crypto companies. They’ve been very open and transparent with their audits and bank records.
  3. DAI ($189M): This is backed by other crypto assets — not USD in a bank account. This was arguably the first true DeFi protocol. The big benefit is that it’s more decentralized — it’s not controlled by any single organization. The downside is that the assets backing it can be volatile crypto assets (though it has mechanisms in place to mitigate that risk).
Other notable USD-backed stablecoins include PAX, TrueUSD, Binance USD, and Gemini Dollar.
tablecoins are playing an increasingly important role in the world of DeFi. In a way, they serve as common pipes & bridges between the various protocols.
https://preview.redd.it/v9ki2qro12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=dbf591b122fc4b3d83b381389145b88e2505b51d

Lending & Borrowing

Three of the top five DeFi protocols relate to lending & borrowing. These popular lending protocols look very similar to traditional money markets. Users who want to earn interest/yield can deposit (lend) their funds into a pool of liquidity. Because it behaves similarly to traditional money markets, their funds are not locked, they can withdraw at any time. It’s highly liquid.
Borrowers can tap into this pool of liquidity and take out loans. Interest rates depend on the utilization rate of the pool — how much of the deposits in the pool have already been borrowed. Supply & demand. Thus, interest rates are variable and borrowers can pay their loans back at any time.
So, who decides how much a borrower can take? What’s the process like? Are there credit checks? How is credit-worthiness determined?
These protocols are decentralized, borderless, permissionless. The people participating in these markets are from all over the world. There is no simple way to verify identity or check credit history. So none of that happens.
Credit-worthiness is determined simply by how much crypto collateral the borrower puts into the protocol. For example, if a user wants to borrow $5k of USDC, then they’ll need to deposit $10k of BTC or ETH. The exact amount of collateral depends on the rules of the protocol — usually the more liquid the collateral asset, the more borrowing power the user can receive.
The most prominent lending protocols include Compound, Aave, Maker, and Atomic Loans. Recently, Compound has seen meteoric growth with the introduction of their COMP token — a token used to incentivize and reward participants of the protocol. There’s almost $1B in outstanding debt in the Compound protocol. Mainframe is also working on an exciting protocol in this area and the latest iteration of their white paper should be coming out soon.
There is very little economic risk to these protocols because all loans are overcollateralized.
I repeat, all loans are overcollateralized. If the value of the collateral depreciates significantly due to price volatility, there are sophisticated liquidation systems to ensure the loan always gets paid back.
https://preview.redd.it/rru5fykv12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=620679dd84fca098a042051c7e7e1697be8dd259

Investments

Buying, selling, and trading crypto assets is certainly one form of investing (though not for the faint of heart). But there are now DeFi protocols to facilitate making and managing traditional-style investments.
Through DeFi, you can invest in Gold. You can invest in stocks like Amazon and Apple. You can short Tesla. You can access the S&P 500. This is done through crypto-based synthetics — which gives users exposure to assets without needing to hold or own the underlying asset. This is all possible with protocols like UMA, Synthetix, or Market protocol.
Maybe your style of investing is more passive. With PoolTogether , you can participate in a no-loss lottery.
Maybe you’re an advanced trader and want to trade options or futures. You can do that with DeFi protocols like Convexity, Futureswap, and dYdX. Maybe you live on the wild side and trade on margin or leverage, you can do that with protocols like Fulcrum, Nuo, and DDEX. Or maybe you’re a degenerate gambler and want to bet against Trump in the upcoming election, you can do that on Augur.
And there are plenty of DeFi protocols to help with crypto investing. You could use Set Protocol if you need automated trading strategies. You could use Melonport if you’re an asset manager. You could use Balancer to automatically rebalance your portfolio.
With as little as $1, people all over the world can have access to the same investment opportunities and tools that used to be reserved for only the wealthy, or those lucky enough to be born in the right country.
You can start to imagine how services like Etrade, TD Ameritrade, Schwab, and even Robinhood could be massively disrupted by a crypto-native company that builds with these types of protocols at their foundation.
https://preview.redd.it/agco8msx12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=3bbb595f9ecc84758d276dbf82bc5ddd9e329ff8

Insurance

As mentioned in our previous post, there are near-infinite applications one can build on Ethereum. As a result, sometimes the code doesn’t work as expected. Bugs get through, it breaks. We’re still early in our industry. The tools, frameworks, and best practices are all still being established. Things can go wrong.
Sometimes the application just gets in a weird or bad state where funds can’t be recovered — like with what happened with Parity where $280M got frozen (yes, I lost some money in that). Sometimes, there are hackers who discover a vulnerability in the code and maliciously steal funds — like how dForce lost $25M a few months ago, or how The DAO lost $50M a few years ago. And sometimes the system works as designed, but the economic model behind it is flawed, so a clever user takes advantage of the system— like what recently happened with Balancer where they lost $500k.
There are a lot of risks when interacting with smart contracts and decentralized applications — especially for ones that haven’t stood the test of time. This is why insurance is such an important development in DeFi.
Insurance will be an essential component in helping this technology reach the masses.
Two protocols that are leading the way on DeFi insurance are Nexus Mutual and Opyn. Though they are both still just getting started, many people are already using them. And we’re excited to start working with them at Genesis Block.
https://preview.redd.it/wf1xvq3z12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=70db1e9587f57d0c470a4f9f4523c216929e1876

Exchanges & Liquidity

Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) were one of the first and most developed categories in DeFi. A DEX allows a user to easily exchange one crypto asset for another crypto asset — but without needing to sign up for an account, verify identity, etc. It’s all via decentralized protocols.
Within the first 5 months of 2020, the top 7 DEX already achieved the 2019 trading volume. That was $2.5B. DeFi is fueling a lot of this growth.
https://preview.redd.it/1dwvq4e022b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=97a3d756f60239cd147031eb95fc2a981db55943
There are many different flavors of DEX. Some of the early ones included 0x, IDEX, and EtherDelta — all of which had a traditional order book model where buyers are matched with sellers.
Another flavor is the pooled liquidity approach where the price is determined algorithmically based on how much liquidity there is and how much the user wants to buy. This is known as an AMM (Automated Market Maker) — Uniswap and Bancor were early leaders here. Though lately, Balancer has seen incredible growth due mostly to their strong incentives for participation — similar to Compound.
There are some DEXs that are more specialized — for example, Curve and mStable focus mostly only stablecoins. Because of the proliferation of these decentralized exchanges, there are now aggregators that combine and connect the liquidity of many sources. Those include Kyber, Totle, 1Inch, and Dex.ag.
These decentralized exchanges are becoming more and more connected to DeFi because they provide an opportunity for yield and earning interest.
Users can earn passive income by supplying liquidity to these markets. It usually comes in the form of sharing transaction fee revenue (Uniswap) or token rewards (Balancer).
https://preview.redd.it/wrug6lg222b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=9c47a3f2e01426ca87d84b92c1e914db39ff773f

Payments

As it relates to making payments, much of the world is still stuck on plastic cards. We’re grateful to partner with Visa and launch the Genesis Block debit card… but we still don’t believe that's the future of payments. We see that as an important bridge between the past (legacy finance) and the future (crypto).
Our first post in this series shared more on why legacy finance is broken. We talked about the countless unnecessary middle-men on every card swipe (merchant, acquiring bank, processor, card network, issuing bank). We talked about the slow settlement times.
The future of payments will be much better. Yes, it’ll be from a mobile phone and the user experience will be similar to ApplePay (NFC) or WePay (QR Code).
But more importantly, the underlying assets being moved/exchanged will all be crypto — digital, permissionless, and open source.
Someone making a payment at the grocery store check-out line will be able to open up Genesis Block, use contactless tech or scan a QR code, and instantly pay for their goods. All using crypto. Likely a stablecoin. Settlement will be instant. All the middlemen getting their pound of flesh will be disintermediated. The merchant can make more and the user can spend less. Blockchain FTW!
Now let’s talk about a few projects working in this area. The xDai Burner Wallet experience was incredible at the ETHDenver event a few years ago, but that speed came at the expense of full decentralization (can it be censored or shut down?). Of course, Facebook’s Libra wants to become the new standard for global payments, but many are afraid to give Facebook that much control (newsflash: it isn’t very decentralized).
Bitcoin is decentralized… but it’s slow and volatile. There are strong projects like Lightning Network (Zap example) that are still trying to make it happen. Projects like Connext and OmiseGo are trying to help bring payments to Ethereum. The Flexa project is leveraging the gift card rails, which is a nice hack to leverage existing pipes. And if ETH 2.0 is as fast as they say it will be, then the future of payments could just be a stablecoin like DAI (a token on Ethereum).
In a way, being able to spend crypto on daily expenses is the holy grail of use-cases. It’s still early. It hasn’t yet been solved. But once we achieve this, then we can ultimately and finally say goodbye to the legacy banking & finance world. Employees can be paid in crypto. Employees can spend in crypto. It changes everything.
Legacy finance is hanging on by a thread, and it’s this use-case that they are still clinging to. Once solved, DeFi domination will be complete.
https://preview.redd.it/svft1ce422b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=9a6afc9e9339a3fec29ee2ae743c07c3042ea4ce

Impact on Genesis Block

At Genesis Block, we’re excited to leverage these protocols and take this incredible technology to the world. Many of these protocols are already deeply integrated with our product. In fact, many are essential. The masses won’t know (or care about) what Tether, USDC, or DAI is. They think in dollars, euros, pounds and pesos. So while the user sees their local currency in the app, the underlying technology is all leveraging stablecoins. It’s all on “crypto rails.”
https://preview.redd.it/jajzttr622b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=fcf55cea1216a1d2fcc3bf327858b009965f9bf8
When users deposit assets into their Genesis Block account, they expect to earn interest. They expect that money to grow. We leverage many of these low-risk lending/exchange DeFi protocols. We lend into decentralized money markets like Compound — where all loans are overcollateralized. Or we supply liquidity to AMM exchanges like Balancer. This allows us to earn interest and generate yield for our depositors. We’re the experts so our users don’t need to be.
We haven’t yet integrated with any of the insurance or investment protocols — but we certainly plan on it. Our infrastructure is built with blockchain technology at the heart and our system is extensible — we’re ready to add assets and protocols when we feel they are ready, safe, secure, and stable. Many of these protocols are still in the experimental phase. It’s still early.
At Genesis Block we’re excited to continue to be at the frontlines of this incredible, innovative, technological revolution called DeFi.
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None of these powerful DeFi protocols will be replacing Robinhood, SoFi, or Venmo anytime soon. They never will. They aren’t meant to! We’ve discussed this before, these are low-level protocols that need killer applications, like Genesis Block.
So now that we’ve gone a little deeper down the rabbit hole and we’ve done this whirlwind tour of DeFi, the natural next question is: why?
Why does any of it matter?
Most of these financial services that DeFi offers already exist in the real world. So why does it need to be on a blockchain? Why does it need to be decentralized? What new value is unlocked? Next post, we answer these important questions.
To look at more projects in DeFi, check out DeFi Prime, DeFi Pulse, or Consensys.
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Other Ways to Consume Today's Episode:
Follow our social channels:https://genesisblock.com/follow/
Download the app. We're a digital bank that's powered by crypto:https://genesisblock.com/download
submitted by mickhagen to genesisblockhq [link] [comments]

Network effect doesn't explain Bitcoin dominance : technical arguments for Bitcoin Maximalism

I often saw some Bitcoiners counter the altcoin shillers with the following argument: "Bitcoin is the first so it has the network effect, so your altcoin will always worth less"
This is not totally wrong but I think this argument is bad. Using it implies implicitly that you admit that Bitcoin is technically less capable than altcoins with their higher transaction rate, fast blocks, instant confirmation, without fees and smart contract support....

And this is WRONG ! Bitcoin price is higher, because Bitcoin is already TECHNICALLY BETTER than any other altcoin and not because of network effect. In 2017, Bitcoin dominance was lower, some altcoin reaches almost the same level than Bitcoin. So network effect is not what prevents an altcoin to take the lead but it is the fact that almost all altcoin that pretend to be better than Bitcoin are technically flawed.
Why ? They use bigger blocks, DAGs (Directed Acyclic Graphs, like used in IOTA or Nano) or wtf they created to disturbe you and make you believe they are better than the good old Bitcoin blockchain. But they have at least one of these two weak points: validation time oand bandwidth.

If they use biggefaster blocks, validation time of block is higher and so block propagation is slower. Less nodes can operate as they may not be able to validate blocks fast enough to keep up with the tip of the chain. You end up like Ethereum that has less and less full verification nodes leading to centralization of the network.
If they use DAGs, they achieve consensus through a "proof-of-stake" vote and always at the cost of bandwidth (quadratic cost in number of node, linear in transaction rate). DAGs are often presented as "each node has its own ledger" but the reality is that the only global ledger you should trust is the complete DAG of the ledgers of each node. Only servers with a shitload of download bandwidth can maintain it as debunked here and here. To not look (in fact be) centralized, some DAG altcoins doesn't, opening the door to history rewrite by buying account that owned a big stake before and still use a lot of bandwidth to reach consensus. Bitcoin just add 80 bytes of proof-of-work data on a block of 1-2MB to achieve it and protect from history rewrite, almost zero cost for the network (that's why we pay fees to miners who carry the cost).
You only have those problems when it reaches a critical level of usage and only then we can see how much those limits where ignored. Until now, very few altcoins reached the limit (maybe Ethereum, and IOTA shows us it is centralized already by stopping the network)
Bitcoin has the highest price because Bitcoin is technically the only possible decentralized king (and a centralized cryptocurrency worths nothing). Yes maybe 1MB limit was too conservativ, yes fees are higher, yes 10 minutes is slow. But if everyone wants their coffee payment to be settled onchain, 1MB or 8MB or 32MB each 10 minutes, minutes or secondes will never be enough while it is a big difference for the network health. You only need the blockchain for settlement, for payment you have Lightning Network that can already destroy PayPal's transaction rate.
So next time you feel convinced by an altcoin that pretend to be better than Bitcoin while being decentralized by design, evaluate the requirement to be a fully validating node and what the overhead of bandwidth needed to achieve consensus. The chances are high that they didn't take care of one of these two issues and end up centralized or broken. You don't need the network effect argument.
submitted by Pantamis to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19

Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19
Link to our article: https://block.co/blockchain-in-healthcare/
There’s never been a better time to provide proof-of-health solutions in the healthcare system globally. While it’s difficult to comprehend the significance of the role that technology may offer in such difficult times, essentially it can be nailed down to its basic concept of simplifying work and coordinating activities, which could have helped avoid the worst crisis people have experienced in their lifetime. If the healthcare system would adopt technological innovations in the early stages, it could have benefited and saved many lives.
Although the healthcare system has traditionally been slow in embracing the latest digital solutions, just like many other industries, we’ve observed in a previous article how the Covid-19 crisis has accelerated the adoption of digital technologies on a global scale in several industries, including healthcare.
The latest webcast brought to the audience by Block.co hosted some high profile experts from the industry. They illustrated how blockchain especially, together with other technologies such as IoT, and AI could in the future help elevate prompt responses, and provide more secure and efficient storage of data, something that has been missed in the recent pandemic.
Ahmed Abdulla from Digipharm, Dr. Alice Loveys from EY, and Dimitrios Neocleous from VeChain were hosted by Georgina Kyriakoudes, one of the first in the world to hold an MSc in Digital Currency, founder of Dcentric.Health and creator of the permissioned blockchain ecosystem app called Aria, which aims to transform the patient healthcare experience by giving individuals full control of their medical records.
Blockchain’s benefits in healthcare are primarily identified by efficiency, specifically on the transfer of data, facilitation of goods transport via the supply chain, prevention of counterfeit medicines sale, secure storage, and exchange of data around ID management. The impressive projects all the webcast guests have developed in the industry enable just these features, from the digitization of patient records to storage and exchange of medical data as well as easier processing of funds.
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Ahmed Abdulla founded Digipharm with the idea of issuing tokens to allow patients to be in control of their medical records at all times. Moreover, tokens are issued to be paid for anonymously sharing personal medical data to help research; pay for healthcare based on how it has improved quality of life.
We have experienced a disparity in Covid-19 tests costs around the world. For instance, getting tested in Cyprus costs around €60 while in the US it may add up to a few thousand dollars. This is due to the way countries arrange payment setups from payers to providers. Blockchain empowers people to take ownership of their records and funds while providing transparency of processes. This is where blockchain can be robust, by increasing transparency and allowing the patient to secure money transfer and hold their own records”, stated Ahmed.
His work as blockchain advisor at the UN Economic Commission for Europe is helping set up standards for the blockchain ecosystem, namely how the system should be used safely, and in a way that benefits all stakeholders.
“I lead the blockchain and healthcare team at the UN center for trade facilitation and e-business where we developed a blockchain and trade facilitation white paper; the second phase will soon provide an advanced technology advisory board to advise private or public stakeholders on what’s the best technology to use. It might not always be blockchain, hence we first understand and then advise if the tech is right for them or not. Blockchain is clunky, expensive, and not always proper for the organization we work with”, continued the blockchain expert.
Most people may prefer public and permissionless blockchain because it has major advantages over a private and permissioned one. Transparency stands out for the way the ledger is shared and for due diligence becoming unnecessary as a result. This means costs are also cheaper, in the range of 100% lower. On the other hand, a public decentralized blockchain has a major disadvantage since no legal framework is laid out. This means uncertainty as there is still a grey area in the legal field that might create confusion.
Dimitrios Neocleous is Ecosystem Manager at VeChain Tech and directly supported digital and technological solutions provider I-DANTE with the creation of the E-NewHealthLife and the E-HCert for the Mediterranean Hospital of Cyprus. Both apps give patients control over their health records, improve medical data sharing, and increase hospital operational efficiencies by simplifying the process of visiting a hospital.
E-NewHealthLife is a complex ecosystem solution that starts from a patient’s visit to an emergency room. A card with the reason for a patient’s visit is issued; it gets time-stamped; the patient is sent to the waiting room; once the patient’s turn comes and the medical check is completed, the card is scanned and the visit is closed. Patients can digitally access all diagnoses that took place anytime at the hospital.
“The platform produces a digital health passport, which is an encrypted non-fungible card that patients can use to identify themselves automatically when registering at the hospital’s emergency room. The passport is stored within a mobile app called E-HCert, which keeps track of each patient’s medical data and can be shared as needed”, announced Dimitrios.
E-HCert App is a Covid-19 lab test electronic wallet and pushes up the results of a patient who’s been tested for COVID. It has been proven to be very successful so far; currently, 2000 people who transited through the Larnaca airport in Cyprus have downloaded the app. With time-stamped records, it’s able to provide data such as the day and time when the sample was collected, it offers immutability, security, and integrity of data.
https://preview.redd.it/kqq7jfgpz1851.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=2c9a121e0a4839125418db7ff61ae3957c3fff41
“Covid-19 showed a deficiency in healthcare. The spread of the virus could have been prevented if we had digitization of processes and transparency of data through blockchain, and transfer of data through an authorized share of records. An open permissionless decentralized blockchain helps bring ownership of medical records back to the patient, and that is not possible in a centralized system”, continued the VeChain representative.
Dr. Alice Loveys is EY ‘s healthcare blockchain leader in the US and has been at the forefront of emerging healthcare technologies for her entire career including being a pioneer in electronic health record adoption, health information exchange, and privacy and security.
She believes that “blockchain technology is like a plumbing system that brings clean and transparent trusted data that can be used. It’s not proper for a track and trace system as it invades privacy unless there is the consent from patients, in that case, blockchain transparent share of data would be extremely useful for medical research and testing”.
One problem we experienced during the crisis is the confusion that arose with divulged information and the frustration that comes with it. People do not understand anymore which information can be trusted; at first, it looked like COVID-19 symptoms were not dangerous, then it came out that they actually were. Masks were not useful at the beginning, then they suddenly became necessary.
“Blockchain could have prevented lockdown and economic crisis through data management in that a much faster response would have been provided to tackle misinformation because blockchain can help manage data from different sources”, continues Dr. Loveys. “Moreover, it’s a great way to protect the database. Instead of moving any private sensitive medical data through the more traditional digital systems, blockchain simply allows us to send an algorithm, encrypted data that safeguards the information. It’s not a great use as a database as it does not scale, therefore we would not be able to store information for billions of people in it. But for the data that is in the blockchain, using algorithms, makes it very convenient and secure”.
Another topic discussed during the webcast was the GDPR compliance for blockchain. GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) was created before blockchain therefore it doesn’t account for decentralized technologies. Generally speaking, it all comes down to how the technology is used and what kind of data is incorporated in it. Timestamping data without invading anyone’s privacy, or timestamp of consented data, should determine no issue at all. This is what privacy by design stands for, taking human values into account in a well-defined manner throughout the whole process.
Block.co, powered by the University of Nicosia, is establishing itself as a global leader in the issuance of digital immutable and secure certificates timestamped on the Bitcoin blockchain. In the field of healthcare, it could include medical records, prescription issuance, insurance disputes, supply chain documentation, and any type of verifiable certificate that requires authenticity at its core.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from Block.co, like and follow us on social media:
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submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

Leads you to a comprehensive understanding of Forbes

Leads you to a comprehensive understanding of Forbes

https://preview.redd.it/1dra1br1xu351.png?width=740&format=png&auto=webp&s=925b38326cb8aa4f4b2863670ada61005ee72c4c
What is the hottest blockchain project in 2020?
Besides GFS, GFS is still GFS in my mind! GFS currency - the only token of Forbes cross chain blockchain!
Forbes is the latest generation of blockchain, which can be said to be a new blockchain mode, or it is not a pure blockchain project. As we all know, in the era of blockchain 1.0, the bitcoin of Nakamoto brings decentralized distributed bookkeeping book, which enables human beings to have just assets for the first time; in the era of 2.0, the Ethereum smart contract created by V God makes the blockchain have divergent applications; in the era of 3.0, innovation public chains such as EOS make the application of blockchain easier to land. It will open Forbes in the era of blockchain 4.0 and create a distributed financial era of "ten thousand chain interconnection". My feeling is that Forbes is going to overthrow the traditional Internet and the classic blockchain, and reshape a financial world built directly on the blockchain.
The most classic sentence on the Internet is: change your life, but it has nothing to do with you.
In this way, Forbes uses the philosophy of blockchain and further technology to redo blockchain and bring blockchain to a new dimension. Today's bitcoin looks like a monument and a myth, but Forbes is using its cross chain technology and financial deployment to gently reinterpret the blockchain.
Next, I will expand what you are concerned about and what I see in the form of Q & A:
1. Is it investment or speculation to participate in Forbes?
Although we do not exclude speculation, there is no doubt that participating in Forbes is one of the best investment behaviors in 2020, no less than investing in bitcoin in 2013 and Ethereum in 2016. Forbes is a pure technology project, with no messy black box operation. As Forbes early deployed the ore field to facilitate the construction of cross chain system, early users can rent the Forbes BTC miner loaded with self-developed bitcoin ASIC chips by way of mortgage, with the strongest configuration on the ground. Moreover, in the process of mining, the early nodes do not even need to pay a penny, only mortgage deposit can deploy the physical miner. The income obtained can also participate in the early stage node plan carried out by Dao organization, and part of the income can be converted into GFS through Forbes wallet.
And the deposit is not a routine, all the mortgage deposits will be locked in the chain. With the shortening of the lease term, each day will be returned to the user's wallet through the "deposit smart contract", without any centralized individual and organization participation in the whole process. In this way, it is equivalent to zero risk investment! After all, Forbes, with its cryptology and open source spirit, is inherently powerful. What Forbes wants to change is the life of centralization!
And then there's no more. Jane is not simple.
2. Why do you like Forbes?
Very simple, blockchain 4.0
First of all, let's not talk about anything. Forbes has solved a problem - mining hegemony.
In the past, blockchain seems that nodes can enter and leave freely, but in fact, it needs a huge threshold to become nodes and obtain mining rewards. Whether it's bitcoin, you need to buy very expensive and complex mining equipment (ASIC miner), or EOS, Tron and other POS projects, and you need to hold a large number of coins to be elected as nodes. All in all, most of the current blockchain systems need very high mining costs, which in essence violates the principle of zhongbencong's blockchain design.
The powerful thing about Forbes is that it creatively constructs dpoc as a consensus mechanism of trunk chain (main chain). Dpoc is a kind of common understanding of POC. There is no big deployment threshold for mining with hard disk miner. As a result of the consensus between Forbes blockchain Multi Chain Design and dpoc, all mining machines that do not have the relay chain node selected can pack the interaction information between the parallel chain and the relay chain, and can also obtain the block reward. In essence, such a design realizes Zhongben Cong's idea that everyone can dig. Let alone Forbes to build a mine pool, to build the strongest mining machine that can dig out the Forbes token GFS.
With this in mind, which blockchain product can match.
Layout of Forbes
The vision of Forbes: to build the most universal distributed financial system in the world, driven by Forbes, the most widely used cross chain system in the world.
I saw two key words: cross chain, distributed Finance
Cross chain is the most urgent problem in current blockchain ecology. In the past 10 years, various blockchain systems have been deepening in security and performance, but no progress has been made in chain and chain scalability. As you can see, the chain and the chain is an island. Can EOS players and wave players break the bond?
In the human financial life, transaction, loan, personal credit, supply chain finance, stock, commodity... They are directly full of interaction and connection. It can be said that human beings are dealing with all kinds of transactions all the time. Can the isolated blockchain really solve the problem?
Forbes is born to be a global distributed financial system and truly a financial ecosystem. Imagine what a change it would be if you could smoothly carry out blockchain financial activities with foreign small partners. This pattern is too big for me to say. But please believe that if this is done, it can be described as a complete disaster.

https://preview.redd.it/ee15vfv8xu351.png?width=1450&format=png&auto=webp&s=b36e2aa2548e0320b127d30e67d28511a666b30b
3. Is it better to mine or invite new people?
Since this is my experience interpretation, I think: invite, boldly invite new people. Every time you invite one, you add a certain amount of calculation power. It's good to mine in Buddhism, but if you can participate in the birth of a great project, you can get more profits. Why not?
Let's take a different perspective: now that you recognize Forbes, you recognize its value. Or you're not going to dig, are you! So, why can't we add more yards! Since we are trying to change our destiny, this is the highest lever. If it does, which lever can be bigger than Forbes!
So, invest money or energy, and do what you can.
4. Do I want to join the Forbes pool project?
Do you want to do it.
They all recognize the value, so they can download the application directly.
My original intention:
First of all, GFS coin is a new mining model - POC hard disk mining that "everyone can dig, everyone can benefit". It avoids pow (proof of work workload) which is a large power consumption mode. In the initial stage of the main network online, Forbes opened the mine pool plan, leasing the mine machine at zero cost, becoming the earliest node of blockchain 4.0 representing the project, and obtaining the maximum benefit. Why not? You know, GFS production is also halved in four years. To dig now is to dig bitcoin before 2013, without cost.
Secondly, in this stage, we can also increase the number of invited nodes. After the completion of the mining pool plan, we can only rely on hard indicators to increase the computing power. Now we can also rely on our efforts to get more profits. Therefore, in the face of equal opportunities for all, this is a great opportunity to take the initiative. Still hesitant?
5. Blockchain is my knowledge blind area. What can I do if I don't understand cross chain knowledge?
First of all, you have to ask you, this is the excuse you don't want to get wealth?
Not only Forbes is your knowledge blind area, but blockchain is a knowledge blind area for ordinary people. However, you should know that in 2020, the State advocates blockchain, the central bank DCEP has been put into trial operation, and blockchain has been applied in many aspects. Are you still in your blind spot?
Of course, it's not good to pull the national flag. Let's talk about something practical. Opportunity always appears in new things. Ask, what's the matter with you, a solidified model? You have money or connections. I believe that choice is more important than effort. A road, if we choose the wrong direction at the beginning, the harder we work, the farther away we are from our goal.
Therefore, the knowledge blind spot is not my problem, but whether you have a heart willing to contact new things!
Among the miners I know, there is a 67 year old elder brother who has been a soldier, a factory, a traditional businessman and a cell phone. Do you still have his blind spot?
6. Will Forbes succeed?
To be honest, I don't know. But I know that it is the blockchain project that I hope to reach the most in 2020. For details, please refer to the second question, why I like Forbes. If you really question Forbes, you can choose to only participate in the "miner Alliance Plan" and choose to mine at zero cost. No matter how the Forbes project progresses, you can get the benefit of mining without cost. Why not? Besides, when the Forbes project is really implemented, you can decide whether to invest in GFS. I'm sure you will have your own judgment at that time.
7. What is the most important thing to dig GFS?
Insist, insist, or insist.
We must make full use of our efforts in the earliest planning activities of the mine pool. After all, mining at zero cost + inviting to increase the calculation power and increase the support in the wet season. At this stage, we must dig more coins and exchange more for GFS. Maybe the reward coins you dig out in three months can't be found in a year after you try to buy hard disk mining machines for nodes.

https://preview.redd.it/wi81roocxu351.png?width=750&format=png&auto=webp&s=0cd677f420071cfad942e426d4b415165915c2d0
8. There are so many people who rent mining machines first. Do I have a chance?
People die more than people, and goods are thrown away more than goods. Don't compare with others, just be yourself.
God said, I can fulfill your one wish, but I will give you twice as many neighbors.
You will choose 10 million positive choices,
Or one less arm in the dark?
Mining is like this. Those old miners are your neighbors. Dare to own 10 million good, do not think about neighbors than you 10 million. Is that right? And when there are 10000 GFS, do you still want someone to have 100 more than you?
9. How much is GFS worth?
To be honest, I don't know. The number of GFS is 21 million bitcoin, and the price of bitcoin is about 60000 yuan. The GFS main network has just been launched. In some markets, its price has increased more than 10 times in five days, far exceeding the price of bitcoin before the half reduction. The miners who rent mining machines in advance are blessed.
As for the future, with the start of the implementation of blockchain financial facilities this year, GFS must be just the beginning. Where is the top? We witnessed it together.
10. Which do I want, kusd or usdt?
For now, it doesn't matter which one you use. Although usdt has a lot of potential risks, there are still many people using it. However, we all know that it will have a thunderstorm sooner or later.
As a cross chain gold stable currency, when cross chain finance begins to integrate into public life, kusd will show its power, which is better than issuing a usdt once in a chain. Moreover, more than 95% of the value of each kusd is based on gold, which can be exchanged by major gold exchanges in the world. The stability of gold. Have you seen it clearly in this epidemic? This is beyond the dollar.
submitted by forbeschain to u/forbeschain [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: SPV security

There’s often a tension in the crypto world between security and convenience. That trade-off is unacceptable if we want these technologies to be widely used. Here’s how Ergo addresses one common and very important issue.
We all know that the most secure way to use Bitcoin, or any crypto, is to download a copy of the blockchain and run a full node yourself. That way, every time you or anyone else makes a transaction, your client checks the blockchain to ensure it’s valid. You don’t have to trust anyone else.
A full Bitcoin node checks all the blocks in the blockchain (using headers) and makes sure there are no fraudulent transactions. It’s a very secure way of using crypto – but there’s a problem. It requires significant bandwidth, storage and processing power. That kind of commodity hardware is expensive, and using a full node to validate and make transactions is in any case unsuitable for mobile devices. This is particularly true for Bitcoin, where the blockchain is over 270 GB and counting.
SPV
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) is designed to address this problem, as described in the Bitcoin white paper:
Satoshi notes that this is not a perfect solution, and is vulnerable to an attacker overpowering the network and fooling SPV users.
Moreover, while SPV mode is intended for resource-limited devices, even this ‘lite’ approach is not always feasible. Ethereum’s headers alone total around 5 GB to download. Thus Ethereum mobile clients do not validate chain validity and so blindly have to trust third parties.
There are proposals to reduce the requirements for SPV mode by checking just a few random headers, instead of all of them. But it’s hard to do that securely.
Efficient SPV
Several years have been spent researching and developing secure protocols that allow for efficient SPV clients. The two best-known and most reliable protocols are NiPoPoWs and FlyClient.
Ergo implements NiPoPoWs, or Non-interactive Proof-of-Proof-of-Work. This technology can be explored in full on this dedicated website: https://nipopows.com:
This enables us to build a mobile SPV client that requires around just 100KB of block headers to be downloaded.
A super-efficient Ergo wallet with SPV security is in development, so stay tuned for more updates!
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submitted by kushti to ergoplatformorg [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: SPV security

There’s often a tension in the crypto world between security and convenience. That trade-off is unacceptable if we want these technologies to be widely used. Here’s how Ergo addresses one common and very important issue.
We all know that the most secure way to use Bitcoin, or any crypto, is to download a copy of the blockchain and run a full node yourself. That way, every time you or anyone else makes a transaction, your client checks the blockchain to ensure it’s valid. You don’t have to trust anyone else.
A full Bitcoin node checks all the blocks in the blockchain (using headers) and makes sure there are no fraudulent transactions. It’s a very secure way of using crypto – but there’s a problem. It requires significant bandwidth, storage and processing power. That kind of commodity hardware is expensive, and using a full node to validate and make transactions is in any case unsuitable for mobile devices. This is particularly true for Bitcoin, where the blockchain is over 270 GB and counting.
SPV
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) is designed to address this problem, as described in the Bitcoin white paper:
Satoshi notes that this is not a perfect solution, and is vulnerable to an attacker overpowering the network and fooling SPV users.
Moreover, while SPV mode is intended for resource-limited devices, even this ‘lite’ approach is not always feasible. Ethereum’s headers alone total around 5 GB to download. Thus Ethereum mobile clients do not validate chain validity and so blindly have to trust third parties.
There are proposals to reduce the requirements for SPV mode by checking just a few random headers, instead of all of them. But it’s hard to do that securely.
Efficient SPV
Several years have been spent researching and developing secure protocols that allow for efficient SPV clients. The two best-known and most reliable protocols are NiPoPoWs and FlyClient.
Ergo implements NiPoPoWs, or Non-interactive Proof-of-Proof-of-Work. This technology can be explored in full on this dedicated website: https://nipopows.com:
This enables us to build a mobile SPV client that requires around just 100KB of block headers to be downloaded.
A super-efficient Ergo wallet with SPV security is in development, so stay tuned for more updates!
submitted by eleanorcwhite to btc [link] [comments]

Arian’s Blockchain Evolution

Arian’s Blockchain Evolution

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We will take a tour of the history of Arian’s Blockchain, going back to its beginnings, vision, objectives, and achievements to date.
At the beginning of 2017, the Arian project’s development team and the first members of the Decentralized Governance Committee held working meetings to study the market carefully from the user’s point of view and where the world of cryptocurrencies was heading.
The first mining attempts were in blockchains such as cryptonight and bitcoin, which work with the Proof of Work protocol, which leads to the centralization of mining power in the hands of a few companies.
Arian’s developers understand that the crypto world’s future, as well as in technology in general, does not consist of giving complete autonomy to machines or devices. Artificial Intelligence can not guarantee irreplaceable human elements such as perception, manipulation, creativity, reasoning, resilience, and learning for the correct, sustainable, and productive performance. So after extracting the best features of PoW and PoP, the Proof of Achievement was created: a blockchain consensus protocol based on the symbiosis between humans and machines for the block validation process.
This proposal works through a miner’s interaction with a device to achieve validation of Blockchain’s block. Which means with PoAch protocol, the ability and capacity of the user is more important than the device you use to mine. The future belongs to a combination of Artificial Intelligence and Human Intelligence.

First PoAch use case: Find the Hash

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In 2019 the Arian team developed a blockchain video game called Find the Hash, becoming the first official application of their new PoAch protocol. The challenge is to pilot a ship and gather 64 fragments or bytes in a maximum of three minutes competing with other participants; this achievement allows to mine the native cryptocurrency Ariancoin. The winner is confirmed by the game and nodes, allowing the block to be part of the Blockchain. Those who get the reward are called G-MINERS.

Hash Race, find the hash’s optimization

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Find the hash turned out to be a successful blockchain game for the miners. The community around it generated feedback that was taken into account to proceed with the implementation and launch of a new optimized version: Hash Race.
In the alpha test version, many users and G-MINERS recognized the new improvements, including a unique process that enabled us to find a new concept of democratic crypto mining.
G-Miners will have a “state” in the process, which can be: activated or inactivated. All participants who start playing will play in the active state until they do their first mining, at which time the “state” will change to inactivated and be activated again in a specific time. For that reason, this will prevent players with higher skills to hog all the mining, and make way for new players, preserving the concept of decentralization in Arian Blockchain in all its features.
Also, the game is incorporating a virtual store with products and tools to purchase with Ariancoin in the HASH RACE Blockchain Game. It will allow you to mine more efficiently and boost the value of the native crypto-currency ARIAN, contributing to the creation of a commercial ecosystem within the game.

Technical improvements to Arian’s Blockchain

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To project the crypto asset and its ecosystem towards a massive adoption, we made many optimizations. Therefore the current Arian’s Blockchain is the result of some tesnet versions that helped to improve and reach the final objective.
The Blockchain went from 250 million ARIAN to 150 million, with 50% of a pre-mined reserve (75 million ARIAN) used for payments offered to its early adopter’s community. It removed the well-known halving process, and a protocol called “netplay rewards” was included: a reward system for all G-MINERS to obtain Ariancoins for mining reward of the gamers team up to 3 levels deep of recommendation.
When a reward winner can not establish in the chain’s block, it will be awarded randomly among the community whenever there is a node connected even if it is not playing in a tournament.
All transactions in Arian’s Blockchain will record, so the mining data, transfers between users and benefits of the club as commissions, agile Staking, direct sales, and binary payment mode you will be able to view in the explorer of Arian’s website.
For more information visit us at https://ariancoin.io/blackpape

ARIAN CLUB / Usability — Community — Adoption

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The Arian Blockchain fulfilled the strategic alliance with Arian Club, a decentralized club through which early adopters will enjoy financial advantages to promote the use and adoption of the native cryptocurrency Ariancoin as a means of exchange and usability in the community.
Arian Blockchain has many advantages, such as the possibility of Ariancoin’s crypto mining from any device with an Internet connection. Thus, the protocol outline to be the most suitable and profitable for the so-called “smart device” or “Internet of things.”
This strategic alliance has led to a significant increase in downloads, activation of nodes, interaction with the Arian Interactive Node, and a progressive increase in the price of the currency.
For more information visit the following link: https://club.ariancoin.io/

Agile Staking, a new profitable form of “Holding

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The Agile Staking is a capitalization system of the Arian Blockchain protocol. It optimizes the best features of the Proof of Stake Algorithm, and consolidates Arian as a unique hybrid system in the blockchain market. It works with an algorithm that allows the creation of incentives to Ariane’s holders, establishing a shared responsibility with the user to guarantee the security of the network through a daily connectivity of the node to the system.
These incentives will only be available for a limited time until the pre-mining reserve be spend.
Our methodology ensures a more diversified distribution of this crypto asset holders.
submitted by ariancoin to u/ariancoin [link] [comments]

The ultimate dark web anonymity privacy & security course free download - freecoursessites.com

Learn how to access & use the dark net and the clear net privately, anonymously and securely

Privacy And Security Course
Created by Zaid Sabih, z SecurityEnglish English [Auto-generated] What you’ll learn
Requirements
Description
Welcome to the ultimate dark net, privacy, anonymity and security course. With no prior knowledge required this course will take you from a beginner to advanced in all of these topics; teaching you how to properly and securely discover data and websites on both the dark web and clear web, access hidden (onion) services, communicate privately and anonymously using instant messages and email, manually use end-to-end encryption to protect your privacy and make it impossible to read even if it gets intercepted, sign and verify files, share files anonymously, transfer funds anonymously using crypto currencies such as Bitcoin and Monero and much more! You’ll also learn how to do all of this in a secure manner making it very difficult for hackers or other entities to hack you or de-anonymise you, and even if you get hacked these entities won’t be able to easily control your system or de-anonymise you.
This course is highly practical but won’t neglect the theory, first you’ll understand the inner-workings of each topic and each technique covered, then you’ll learn how to apply it in real-life scenarios ultimately teaching you how to use the dark net and the clear net in a more private, more anonymouse and more secure manner, so by the end of the course you’ll be able to combine the skills you learned and use them in any situation that requires more privacy, more anonymity or more security.
This Privacy And Security Course covers four main topics, I chose to cover all of these topics in one course because I think it is very difficult to learn one without the others as they are very related, these main topics are:
1. Anonymity – anonymity is a state where your identity is unknown, achieving this on the internet is not easy because of the way it is designed, so in this course you’ll learn a number of techniques to improve your anonymity, you’ll first learn what the TOR network is, understand how it works and how it can significantly improve our anonymity, then you’ll learn how to connect to it using the TOR Browser, using TAILS and using Qubes OS, you’ll also learn how configure TOR properly to bypass censorship and connect even if its blocked!
2. Privacy – Using an anonymising network such as TOR is not enough to stay private and anonymous because the operating systems we use (Windows, OS X, Linux) constantly collect data about us, therefore in this course you’ll learn how to use two operating systems designed to be more private, more anonymous and more secure; TAILS and Qubes OS, you’ll learn how to install these operating systems on a USB stick so you can use them on any computer without affecting the original operating system and without leaving any traces!
There’s also a fully section on encryption in which you’ll learn how the two main types of encryptions work (symmetric and asymmetric), what is end-to-end encryption and how to use it to encrypt / decrypt and sign / verify data, this allows you to privately communicate and share any sort of data; whether it is simple text, or files such as images, videos…etc without worrying about it being intercepted.
The course also contains a full section on crypto-currencies, because the payment methods we are used to use are not private and not anonymous, so in this section you’ll learn about block chains, crypto-currencies is and how they work, and how to anonymously obtain two crypto currencies; Bitcoin and Monero and use them to send / receive funds.
3. Dark Net – This is the portion on the internet that is not indexed by search engines and require special configuration to access. Using anonymising networks and privacy-focused operating systems are 2 steps in the right direction of becoming more private and more anonymouse but unfortunately it is not enough, the services we use everyday are not private and constantly collect data about us, so the the search engines (Google or Bing), the email provers (ex: Gmail, or Yahoo), the instant messaging platforms (Whatsapp or Skype), the file sharing services (Dropbox or Google Drivet) ….etc all of these services are not private, not anonymouse and can be used to track us and de-anonymise us. Therefore in this course I will teach you how to carry out your normal day-to-day tasks in a more private and anonymous manner, so first I’ll teach you how to search for websites and content on both the clear net and on the dark net, then I’ll tech you how to discover hidden services (onion services) to carry out your normal day-to-day tasks privately and anonymously (such as communicating using emails, or instant messages, file sharing….etc) – Privacy And Security Course
4. Security – All of the above will drastically enhance your anonymity and privacy and allow you to access both the dark web and the clear web privately and anonymously, but if you get hacked, the hacker will gain control over your system and therefore will be able to easily bypass whatever anonymity techniques you’re using and de-anonymise you, so all of the above is useless without security. Therefore in this course I will teach you how to do all of the above securely, then at the last section of the course I’ll show you how to take your security to the next level by dividing your operating system into a number of security domains, these domains are completely isolated and used for different purposes, therefore even if you get hacked only a small portion of your system will be compromised and it would be very difficult for the hacker to compromise the entire system or de-anonymise you.
With this course you’ll get 24/7 support, so if you have any questions you can post them in the Q&A section and we’ll respond to you within 15 hours.
Notes:
Who this course is for:
Size: 6GB
Download link: https://www.freecoursessites.com/the-ultimate-dark-web-anonymity-privacy-security-course-free-download/
submitted by free_tutorials to u/free_tutorials [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: SPV security

There’s often a tension in the crypto world between security and convenience. That trade-off is unacceptable if we want these technologies to be widely used. Here’s how Ergo addresses one common and very important issue.
We all know that the most secure way to use Bitcoin, or any crypto, is to download a copy of the blockchain and run a full node yourself. That way, every time you or anyone else makes a transaction, your client checks the blockchain to ensure it’s valid. You don’t have to trust anyone else.
A full Bitcoin node checks all the blocks in the blockchain (using headers) and makes sure there are no fraudulent transactions. It’s a very secure way of using crypto – but there’s a problem. It requires significant bandwidth, storage and processing power. That kind of commodity hardware is expensive, and using a full node to validate and make transactions is in any case unsuitable for mobile devices. This is particularly true for Bitcoin, where the blockchain is over 270 GB and counting.
SPV
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) is designed to address this problem, as described in the Bitcoin white paper:
Satoshi notes that this is not a perfect solution, and is vulnerable to an attacker overpowering the network and fooling SPV users.
Moreover, while SPV mode is intended for resource-limited devices, even this ‘lite’ approach is not always feasible. Ethereum’s headers alone total around 5 GB to download. Thus Ethereum mobile clients do not validate chain validity and so blindly have to trust third parties.
There are proposals to reduce the requirements for SPV mode by checking just a few random headers, instead of all of them. But it’s hard to do that securely.
Efficient SPV
Several years have been spent researching and developing secure protocols that allow for efficient SPV clients. The two best-known and most reliable protocols are NiPoPoWs and FlyClient.
Ergo implements NiPoPoWs, or Non-interactive Proof-of-Proof-of-Work. This technology can be explored in full on this dedicated website: https://nipopows.com:
This enables us to build a mobile SPV client that requires around just 100KB of block headers to be downloaded.
A super-efficient Ergo wallet with SPV security is in development, so stay tuned for more updates!
submitted by eleanorcwhite to btc [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: SPV security

There’s often a tension in the crypto world between security and convenience. That trade-off is unacceptable if we want these technologies to be widely used. Here’s how Ergo addresses one common and very important issue.
We all know that the most secure way to use Bitcoin, or any crypto, is to download a copy of the blockchain and run a full node yourself. That way, every time you or anyone else makes a transaction, your client checks the blockchain to ensure it’s valid. You don’t have to trust anyone else.
A full Bitcoin node checks all the blocks in the blockchain (using headers) and makes sure there are no fraudulent transactions. It’s a very secure way of using crypto – but there’s a problem. It requires significant bandwidth, storage and processing power. That kind of commodity hardware is expensive, and using a full node to validate and make transactions is in any case unsuitable for mobile devices. This is particularly true for Bitcoin, where the blockchain is over 270 GB and counting.
SPV
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) is designed to address this problem, as described in the Bitcoin white paper:
Satoshi notes that this is not a perfect solution, and is vulnerable to an attacker overpowering the network and fooling SPV users.
Moreover, while SPV mode is intended for resource-limited devices, even this ‘lite’ approach is not always feasible. Ethereum’s headers alone total around 5 GB to download. Thus Ethereum mobile clients do not validate chain validity and so blindly have to trust third parties.
There are proposals to reduce the requirements for SPV mode by checking just a few random headers, instead of all of them. But it’s hard to do that securely.
Efficient SPV
Several years have been spent researching and developing secure protocols that allow for efficient SPV clients. The two best-known and most reliable protocols are NiPoPoWs and FlyClient.
Ergo implements NiPoPoWs, or Non-interactive Proof-of-Proof-of-Work. This technology can be explored in full on this dedicated website: https://nipopows.com:
This enables us to build a mobile SPV client that requires around just 100KB of block headers to be downloaded.
A super-efficient Ergo wallet with SPV security is in development, so stay tuned for more updates!
submitted by eleanorcwhite to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: SPV security

There’s often a tension in the crypto world between security and convenience. That trade-off is unacceptable if we want these technologies to be widely used. Here’s how Ergo addresses one common and very important issue.
We all know that the most secure way to use Bitcoin, or any crypto, is to download a copy of the blockchain and run a full node yourself. That way, every time you or anyone else makes a transaction, your client checks the blockchain to ensure it’s valid. You don’t have to trust anyone else.
A full Bitcoin node checks all the blocks in the blockchain (using headers) and makes sure there are no fraudulent transactions. It’s a very secure way of using crypto – but there’s a problem. It requires significant bandwidth, storage and processing power. That kind of commodity hardware is expensive, and using a full node to validate and make transactions is in any case unsuitable for mobile devices. This is particularly true for Bitcoin, where the blockchain is over 270 GB and counting.
SPV
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) is designed to address this problem, as described in the Bitcoin white paper:
Satoshi notes that this is not a perfect solution, and is vulnerable to an attacker overpowering the network and fooling SPV users.
Moreover, while SPV mode is intended for resource-limited devices, even this ‘lite’ approach is not always feasible. Ethereum’s headers alone total around 5 GB to download. Thus Ethereum mobile clients do not validate chain validity and so blindly have to trust third parties.
There are proposals to reduce the requirements for SPV mode by checking just a few random headers, instead of all of them. But it’s hard to do that securely.
Efficient SPV
Several years have been spent researching and developing secure protocols that allow for efficient SPV clients. The two best-known and most reliable protocols are NiPoPoWs and FlyClient.
Ergo implements NiPoPoWs, or Non-interactive Proof-of-Proof-of-Work. This technology can be explored in full on this dedicated website: https://nipopows.com:
This enables us to build a mobile SPV client that requires around just 100KB of block headers to be downloaded.
A super-efficient Ergo wallet with SPV security is in development, so stay tuned for more updates!
submitted by eleanorcwhite to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

Liquid CAD: Canadian dollar payments on the Liquid Sidechain

Hello fellow Canadian bitcoiners or bitcoinca! You will find below all the information related to the launch of Liquid CAD and Bull Bitcoin's Liquid Bitcoin integration. I'll be checking comments here to answer your questions! I'm also posting some comments on my announcement tweet here: https://twitter.com/francispouliot\_/status/1245758698120605697?s=20

Making the Canadian Dollar Bleed Into Bitcoin

Building the infrastructure for the Bitcoin Standard in Canada before the collapse of fiat currencies is the critical mission objective that drives innovation at Bull Bitcoin.
We are very excited to announce an important milestone in fulfilling this duty: the public release of Liquid CAD, our newest product designed to accelerate and facilitate the adoption of Bitcoin.
Liquid CAD is a non-custodial prepaid payment system denominated in Canadian dollars. Units of Liquid CAD (L-CAD) consist of vouchers issued on the Liquid Network as confidential bearer assets that can be transacted peer-to-peer using a Liquid wallet.
Users acquire Liquid CAD by withdrawing their account balance out of Bull Bitcoin, by purchasing Liquid CAD with Bitcoin on Bull Bitcoin, by using the Liquid CAD withdrawal method on other Bitcoin liquidity providers such as Aquanow or by accepting L-CAD as method of payment.
L-CAD assets can only be redeemed for Bitcoin. They cannot be redeemed for a fiat currency payment.
Liquid CAD is a unique project rethinking the concept of fiat-pegged assets, avoiding the banking business model of “fiatcoin” (aka stablecoins) in favor of a prepaid payments model entirely centred around Bitcoin on-ramp and off-ramp. Liquid CAD is not a currency, nor is it a security: it is a prepaid card.
Importantly, the business model of Liquid CAD is not to collect interest on funds in our custody, unlike fiatcoins, but rather to drive the sales of Bitcoin from which we derive our revenue and we benefit from Liquid CAD assets being cashed out and thus removed from our balance sheet. Bull Bitcoin does not get any revenue from interest.
Every time an L-CAD token is purchased by a user, the amount of dollars deposited on Bull Bitcoin is guaranteed to one day be used by someone to purchase Bitcoin. It’s a one-way street: once a unit of fiat is tokenized as L-CAD, it’s never going back to its off-chain fiat form and will ultimately result in a buy order on a Bitcoin trading platform.
The Liquid CAD logo is a drop of blood because our objective is to accelerate “fiat bleed”, a phenomenon best described by Pierre Rochard in his magnificent essay Speculative Attack:
“Bitcoin will not be eagerly adopted by the mainstream, it will be forced upon them. Forced, as in “compelled by economic reality”. People will be forced to pay with bitcoins, not because of ‘the technology’, but because no one will accept their worthless fiat for payments. Contrary to popular belief, good money drives out bad. This “driving out” has started as a small fiat bleed. It will rapidly escalate into Class IV hemorrhaging due to speculative attacks on weak fiat currencies. The end result will be hyperbitcoinization, i.e. “your money is no good here. Bitcoins are not just good money, they are the best money. The Bitcoin network has the best monetary policy and the best brand. We should therefore expect that bitcoins will drive out bad, weak currencies. My own prediction is that slow bleed has been accelerating and is only the first step. The second step will be speculative attacks that use bitcoins as a platform. The third and final step will be hyperbitcoinization.”
Different representations of Canadian dollars compete to be used as payment methods (cash, bank balances, PayPal balances, closed-loop prepaid cards, open-loop prepaid cards, etc.) and that the winner will be the one that has the best Bitcoin saleability, i.e. which can be most easily sold for Bitcoin at a moment’s notice.
We’re very proud to provide this alternative payment method to Canadians in a time where the banking system is falling deeper into crisis, especially as the Canadian dollar is demonstrating itself to be one of the most pointless and weakest currencies that nobody really wants to hold.
Finally, we’re very happy to be partnering with Aquanow, our recommended institutional liquidity provider for high-volume BTC-CAD trading. They will accept Liquid CAD deposits and withdrawals as being interchangeable with Canadian dollars. We hope that Liquid CAD will become the standard representation of Canadian dollar value among Canadian Bitcoin users.

Liquid Bitcoin (L-BTC) integration

In addition to Liquid CAD, Bull Bitcoin is also announcing that Liquid Bitcoin (L-BTC) payments are now supported interchangeably with Bitcoin transactions for all Bull Bitcoin services. This means that our users can buy, sell and spend L-BTC instead of BTC.
Canadian Bitcoin traders can purchase L-BTC from BullBitcoin.com and fund their international trading accounts with L-BTC using ultra fast and cheap confidential transactions. They can also cash-out their Bitcoin balance as L-BTC from these platforms and sell those L-BTC for fiat on Bylls.com, avoiding risky and expensive international wire transfers to unknown and untrusted foreign banks.
The transactional benefits of L-BTC are very potent:
Disclaimer: Liquid Bitcoin (L-BTC) is not the same as Bitcoin (BTC). L-BTC Liquid Network assets are IOUs for Bitcoin held in a multisignature contract by the Liquid Network federation. The custody of the underlying Bitcoin is managed by a decentralized network of 15 members which process transactions and withdrawals from the multisignature contract according to the Liquid Federation protocol rules.

Liquid CAD detailed overview

Peer-to-peer prepaid payments by Bull Bitcoin

Liquid CAD is a non-custodial prepaid payment system denominated in Canadian dollars. Units of Liquid CAD (L-CAD) consist of vouchers issued on the Liquid Network as confidential bearer assets that can be transacted peer-to-peer using a Liquid wallet. Users acquire Liquid CAD by withdrawing their account balance out of the Bull Bitcoin, by purchasing Liquid CAD with Bitcoin on Bull Bitcoin, by using the Liquid CAD withdrawal method on other Bitcoin liquidity providers such as Aquanow or by accepting L-CAD as method of payment.

A new payment method in Canada

Liquid CAD can be used by anyone to send and receive payments denominated in Canadian dollars. Because of the permissionless nature of the Liquid Network, Bull Bitcoin cannot prevent Liquid CAD from being traded on secondary markets. Merchants, individuals and institutions must accept that only Bull Bitcoin can guarantee redemption of the L-CAD and that this redemption will be exclusively paid out in Bitcoin. Accepting Liquid CAD as payment is, in effect, the same as accepting gift cards as payment. However, Bitcoin being the most liquid commodity on the market, it can be transformed into any other currency easily for example using services such a Bylls which allow Canadians to pay all their utility bills, send bank transfers to third parties or sell Bitcoin to their bank account.

Making Canadian dollars bleed into Bitcoin

The purpose of Liquid CAD is to facilitate the transfer fiat in the context of the purchase and sale of Bitcoin and providing innovative new services that help Bitcoin users hedge the value of Canadian dollars against Bitcoin in the context of their commercial transactions. Our goal is to create a payment method that is specifically targeting Bitcoin users that wish to liquidate Canadian dollar payments for Bitcoin. Our mission is to accelerate the phenomenon known as “fiat bleed” whereby Canadians will gradually abandon inferior money (such as the Canadian dollar) for the superior Bitcoin alternative. Every Liquid CAD issued will ultimately be exchanged into Bitcoin. We are excited for the day Liquid CAD will be made obsolete by the inevitable hyperbitcoinization of the Canadian economy.

Regulation: is Liquid CAD a stablecoin?

Liquid CAD is not a general-purpose “stablecoin”. It is a closed-loop Bitcoin prepaid card. It can exclusively be redeemed for Bitcoin on the Bull Bitcoin platform (or at affiliated merchants). Bull Bitcoin is the only counterparty, and it cannot be redeemed for a canadian dollar payment. It is substantively the same as Canadian Tire money. Unlike stablecoins, Bull Bitcoin makes money with L-CAD by driving the sales of Bitcoin on its platform, and doesn’t collect interest on the deposits of Liquid CAD users.
The purchase of Liquid CAD with Canadian dollars is regulated in the Province of Quebec as a prepaid card under the Consumer Protection Act and the Regulation respecting the application of the Consumer Protection Act Consumer Protection Act which define a prepaid card as “a certificate, card or other medium of exchange that is paid in advance and allows the consumer to acquire goods or services from one or more merchants”.
The purchase of Bitcoin using Liquid CAD is regulated in Canada by the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada under the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (S.C. 2000, c. 17).

Counterparty risk

Like all other closed-loop prepaid instruments, Liquid CAD has counterparty risk. The owners are trusting that they will eventually be able to use Liquid CAD as a payment method on the Bull Bitcoin platform to fund their account and purchase Bitcoin. When a Bull Bitcoin user withdraws his Bull Bitcoin account balance as an L-CAD token, the Canadian dollars he used to fund this balance remains in our possession in the same manner as regular Bull Bitcoin vouchers. These funds are used to execute Bitcoin purchases when L-CAD owners decide to redeem their L-CAD for Bitcoin. In essence, each L-CAD is “backed” by the Canadian dollar deposit of the user that withdraws it from the platform in the first place.

Benefits of using and accepting Liquid CAD for payments

Irreversible, non-custodial and no bank required

Liquid CAD payments cannot be charged back, cancelled, delayed or frozen. There is no intermediary between the sender and the recipient. It is a bearer asset: whoever owns the keys owns the coins. It is a perfect way to accept payments or transact securely without depending on banks and payment processors. Canadians can use Liquid CAD to purchase Bitcoin and then use Bylls.com to pay billers, personal payees or simply sell Bitcoin to their bank account.

Fast transaction and cheap fees

Liquid Network transactions are sent and received instantly and require 1 minute for settlement. Transaction fees paid using Liquid Bitcoin can be as low as 300 satoshis per transaction (a few cents). In order to benefit from these cheap fees, make sure to download the latest version of the Elements software and ensure that the minimum transaction fee is set at 100 satoshis per kilobye. It only takes a few minutes to set up a free Liquid Network wallet, such a Green Wallet by blockstream.

Confidential transactions

Unlike Bitcoin, transactions between the sender and the recipient are encrypted. It is impossible for third parties observing Liquid CAD transactions on a block explorer to determine the amount of the transaction. In addition, it’s also impossible to even know you are using Liquid CAD, since the data identifying the asset itself is also encrypted!

What are the use-cases of Liquid CAD?

Buying and selling Bitcoin

The primary use-case of Liquid CAD is to make it easier to buy and sell Bitcoin on the Bull Bitcoin platform. By withdrawing their balance from Bull Bitcoin, users are reducing some (but not all) of the custody risk associated with keeping fiat currency on an exchange. For example, use Liquid CAD to create your own non-custodial dollar-cost-averaging schedule!

Onboarding new Bitcoin users

New users can be overwhelmed by the experience of dealing with banks to buy Bitcoin (and the heavier KYC process of account funding). You may be tempted to buy Bitcoin for them, but that will impose a lot of burdens on you. It’s much easier to set them up with a Green wallet, send them Liquid CAD and show them how to use Bull Bitcoin! They decide when is the right time for them to invest, with a lower KYC burden.

Hedging Bitcoin price

You may believe the price of Bitcoin will go down in the short term, but you still want to hold Bitcoin in the long term. Normally you have two options: short the Bitcoin price (very risky!) or sell your Bitcoin and receive Canadian dollars in your bank account (inconvenient!). By selling your Bitcoin for Liquid CAD, you can lock in the value of Bitcoin right now and buy them back later without needing to use your bank account or taking risks with leverage.

Accepting payments

As a merchant, you want to receive the settlement of payments in Bitcoin. But this imposes a burden on your customers, which have to deal with the Bitcoin price volatility when they are paying you. Ask your clients to pay you with Liquid CAD, and you can get the settlement with Bitcoin on your own terms.

Payroll and suppliers

What if your staff or suppliers want to get paid in Bitcoin? It can be very difficult, because this means you are effectively buying Bitcoin on their behalf. Instead, you can pay them in Liquid CAD and let them deal with the process of choosing the exchange rate and using their own wallet. Let them deal with the tax burden, exchange rates and Bitcoin wallet security.

List of Bull Bitcoin Liquid Network features

Withdraw account balance as L-CAD

This is conceptually the same as “buying” Liquid CAD with your account balance. We call it “Withdrawing L-CAD” because on the Bull Bitcoin platform, we consider L-CAD and CAD to be interchangeable and fungible.

Fund account balance with L-CAD

To redeem Liquid CAD for Bitcoin, users need to first fund their account by selecting the “Deposit L-CAD” payment method. Bull Bitcoin users must always fund their account first before buying Bitcoin, and then purchase Bitcoin with their account balances. Reminder: account balances cannot be withdraw as fiat payments, but can later be withdrawn again as L-CAD.

Sell Bitcoin for L-CAD

You can sell Bitcoin and receive Liquid CAD payments instead of a bill payment, personal payee payment or bank payment. As soon as the Bitcoin transaction is confirmed, the Liquid CAD transaction is sent to the address you provided.

Liquid Bitcoin (L-BTC) and Bitcoin interchangeability

For every service which involves a Bitcoin payment, the user can substitute traditional Bitcoin payments for Liquid Bitcoin payments. This includes:
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Original medium post: https://medium.com/@francispouliot/liquid-cad-canadian-dollar-payments-on-the-liquid-sidechain-f7e3309f8a5f
Official landing page: lcad.bullbitcoin.com
Application page: bullbitcoin.com/l-cad
submitted by FrancisPouliot to BitcoinCA [link] [comments]

Mining and Dogecoin - Some FAQs

Hey shibes,
I see a lot of posts about mining lately and questions about the core wallet and how to mine with it, so here are some facts!
Feel free to add information to that thread or correct me if I did any mistake.

You downloaded the core wallet

Great! After a decade it probably synced and now you are wondering how to get coins? Bad news: You don't get coins by running your wallet, even running it as a full node. Check what a full node is here.
Maybe you thought so, because you saw a very old screenshot of a wallet, like this (Version 1.2). This version had a "Dig" tab where you can enter your mining configuration. The current version doesn't have this anymore, probably because it doesn't make sense anymore.

You downloaded a GPU/CPU miner

Nice! You did it, even your antivirus system probably went postal and you started covering all your webcams... But here is the bad news again: Since people are using ASIC miners, you just can't compete with your CPU hardware anymore. Even with your more advanced GPU you will have a hard time. The hashrate is too high for a desktop PC to compete with them. The blocks should be mined every 1 minute (or so) and that's causing the difficulty to go up - and we are out... So definitly check what is your hashrate while you are mining, you would need about 1.5 MH/s to make 1 Doge in 24 hours!

Mining Doge

Let us start with a quote:
"Dogecoin Core 1.8 introduces AuxPoW from block 371,337. AuxPoW is a technology which enables miners to submit work done while mining other coins, as work on the Dogecoin block chain."
- langerhans
What does this mean? You could waste your hashrate only on the Dogecoin chain, probably find never a block, but when, you only receive about 10.000 Dogecoins, currently worth about $25. Or you could apply your hashrate to LTC and Doge (and probably even more) at the same time. Your change of solving the block (finding the nonce) is your hashrate divided by the hashrat in sum - and this is about the same for Doge and LTC. This means you will always want to submit your work to all chains available!

Mining solo versus pool

So let's face it - mining solo won't get you anywhere, so let's mine on a pool! If you have a really bad Hashrate, please consider that: Often you need about $1 or $2 worth of crypto to receive a payout (without fees). This means, you have to get there. With 100 MH/s on prohashing, it takes about 6 days, running 24/7 to get to that threshold. Now you can do the math... 1 MH/s = 1000 KH/s, if you are below 1 MH/s, you probably won't have fun.

Buying an ASIC

You found an old BTC USB-miner with 24 GH/s (1 GH/s = 1000 MH/s) for $80 bucks - next stop lambo!? Sorry, bad news again, this hashrate is for SHA-256! If you want to mine LTC/Doge you will need a miner using scrypt with quite lower numbers on the hashrate per second, so don't fall for that. Often when you have a big miner (= also loud), you get more Hashrate per $ spent on the miner, but most will still run on a operational loss, because the electricity is too expensive and the miners will be outdated soon again. Leading me to my next point...

Making profit

You won't make money running your miner. Just do the math: What if you would have bougth a miner 1 year ago? Substract costs for electricity and then compare to: What if you just have bought coins. In most cases you would have a greater profit by just buying coins, maybe even with a "stable" coin like Doges.

Cloud Mining

Okay, this was a lot of text and you are still on the hook? Maybe you are desperated enough to invest in some cloud mining contract... But this isn't a good idea either, because most of such contracts are scams based on a ponzi scheme. You often can spot them easy, because they guarantee way to high profits, or they fake payouts that never happened, etc.
Just a thought: If someone in a subway says to you: Give me $1 and lets meet in one year, right here and I give you $54,211,841, you wouldn't trust him and if some mining contract says they will give you 5% a day it is basically the same.
Also rember the merged mining part. Nobody would offer you to mine Doges, they would offer you to buy a hashrate for scrypt that will apply on multiple chains.

Alternative coins

Maybe try to mine a coin where you don't have ASICs yet, like Monero and exchange them to Doge. If somebody already tried this - feel free to add your thoughts!

Folding at Home (Doge)

Some people say folding at home (FAH - https://www.dogecoinfah.com/) still the best. I just installed the tool and it says I would make 69.852 points a day, running on medium power what equates to 8 Doges. It is easy, it was fun, but it isn't much.
Thanks for reading
_nformant
submitted by _nformant to dogecoin [link] [comments]

TokenClub Bi-Weekly Report — Issue 114(5.4–5.17)

TokenClub Bi-Weekly Report — Issue 114(5.4–5.17)

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Hello everyone, thank you for your continued interest and support. In the past two weeks, various tasks of TokenClub have been progressing steadily. The product development and community operation progress this week are as follows:
1. TokenClub Events
1)Binance blockchain live streaming program “Block 101” joins TokenClub APP
TokenClub teamed up with Binance “Block 101” to host a series of live broadcast events. In the past two weeks, the big brothers such as the CEO of Feixin, Cobo co-founder Shenyu, and IOST co-founder Terry visited the TokenClub live broadcast room. See live summary. “Block 101” is a live broadcast of dialogues launched by Binance New Media Marketing Team, hosted by Jiayi, Anna, Liuliu, Yingge, Sisi, Qiqi, Doris, etc. Here will invite entrepreneurs in the industry, investment giants, opinion leaders, trading bulls or ordinary people with stories. Every Monday to Friday, with you in the TokenClub live room.

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2)Participate in poster forwarding, draw red envelope prize
When Bitcoin halves, TokenClub launches a poster forwarding red envelope campaign. On the day of the event, forward the poster to Twitter and the telegram group, and upload a screenshot to have the opportunity to extract the TCT red envelope award ~



3)Participate in live streaming interactive questions and win mysterious gift events
From May 11th to May 15th, TokenClub launched a live question and prize draw event. During the event, watch the block 101 live broadcast and interact with questions during the live broadcast, you will have the opportunity to get a mysterious gift from TokenClub.


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3)TokenClub’s self-media Bilaoye was invited to participate in AMA
a. On May 7th,Bilaoye was invited by UPChain to conduct an AMA with the theme of “Half Countdown, Where Will the Market Go” in the Chains community. AMA article link:
http://public.tokenup100.com/page/article.html?articleId=f1db8c6bfaa94886bbdd863ec9908252&from=timeline&isappinstalled=0
b. On May 8th, Bilaoye was invited by Golden Finance to conduct an AMA with the theme “Bitcoin Breaks Over US $ 10,000 and Will Do This in Half”. Review link:
https://m.jinse.com/live/topic?id=11813&from=singlemessage&isappinstalled=0
C. On May 14, Bilaoye was invited by Cailu Finance to conduct an AMA with the theme of “Correct Postures for Depositing Money” in the Cailu community.Review link:

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2.TokenClub Live
1) Summary
Recently, Feng Yuqing, the director of Yicai Global America, the first Chinese reporter to interview Buffett, the organizer & host of the First Financial New York Forum; a world-renowned financial expert, a professor of finance at the Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business, and the director of the finance department -Cao Huining; ARPA founder Felix, SWFT Blockchain one-stop currency exchange cross-chain platform operation in Greater China & BD leader-Ye Fei, mining big man Binxin Mining CEO “Feige”, contract emperor co-founder Xiaoding, AlchemyPay co-founder Shi Xiang, financial expert & first-line trader Xu Zhe, Huobi Key Account Manager-Xiaotong, Roark Group & Bitribe & 499 Block founder sky, Cobo co-founder Shenyu, DappReview CEO Niu Fengxuan, IOST co-founder Terry; and TokenClub blockchain and cryptocurrency investment strategy senior expert-Zao Shen talks with you about the blockchain ~
On May 6, Block 101 Sisi Dialogue Felix, the founder of the hard-core technical team on the blockchain, ARPA Felix, the theme is “The Wall Street Battle of the Wall Street Elite”. In this live dialogue, the resume is dazzling. , The young man who was free to switch between “Yangchun Baixue” and “earthed gas” from the team’s initial heart chat to his investment strategy to the judgment of the entire currency market, his fanaticism of rock seems to explain a series of “adventure” options- — Longing for a more free and innovative world.


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On May 6th, TokenClub invited the one-stop SWFT Blockchain currency exchange cross-chain platform Greater China operation & BD leader-Ye Fei as a guest to “Jingjing at 8 o’clock” live broadcast, bringing us “flash exchange in the future block The theme of “Chain Payment Ecosystem” is shared. Mr. Ye made a detailed interpretation of SWFTC, and revealed the development plan of SWFTC, and exchanged questions and answers with fans enthusiastically.

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On May 7th, Block 101 Luna talked to the CEO of the mining industry, who is most familiar with KTV, Kexin Mining, “Fei Ge”. Liu Fei talked to Bin An Luna, he counted his mining “stepping on the pit road” “, Talking about halving the market and investment experience, talking to the second half, wearing a red Polo shirt, he began to persuade everyone to learn more in the KTV in Beijing at night, and recommended books.


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On May 8, the TokenClub live column-”Professor had an appointment” shared the theme: “BOC crude oil treasure and financial derivatives market”. In this issue, Professor Cao invited the first U.S. Global Director of the United States, the first Chinese reporter to interview Buffett, the organizer & host of the First Financial New York Forum, and Columbia University Master of International Relations Feng Yuqing to share with guests on Chain, digital currency financial derivatives market, etc. have done a detailed exchange analysis.

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On May 8th, block 101 was led by Binance BD’s head Li Jiayi, who talked about contract emperor co-founder Xiao Dingdang. He is an old code farmer who is known for his futures contract operations. He wrote a 10-year code, and the front end Everyone is familiar with it, and it is hard to say anything on the line of speech. Frankly, he talked from his fortune history to the story of the endless number of contract circles, and shared his trading iron law with everyone: there must be a stop loss; must practice more and try more.


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On May 9th, Zaoshen is coming ~ The sharing theme of this issue is: The Yangtze River will push back and forth, and one wave will be more than one wave. Speaking of the “Houlang” hot event, Zao Shen mainly analyzed the halving market with everyone in detail, to see how many opportunities there are and what strategies to choose. Soul asked: How much money did you make in this wave of quotes?


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On May 11, Block 101 was discussed by Binance Qiqi Dialogue AlchemyPay co-founder Shi Xiang, the former vice president of Zhongan Technology and the founder of Micro Index shared with you the experience of dealing with overseas regulators: supervision is not actually strong Groups, regulation will strike you because you are worried about doing bad things, but as long as you are willing to actively communicate, regulation usually gives a tolerance period. For more content, please move to the live room.

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May 12, Exclusive: Huobi Global & Knowing Daniel Interpretation of “Physical Currency, Debt Currency to Encrypted Digital Currency”. The key account manager of Huobi Global has a conversation with financial expert and front-line trader Xu Zhe, talking about physical currency, debt currency and encrypted digital currency. Work is tired enough, the market is already exciting enough, pick Xu Da Tucao various currencies, teach you to return all the money. The value of the young lady’s face is a feeling of emotion.


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On May 12, Block 101 was founded by Binance Thinking, the founder of Roark Group, Bitribe, and 499Block. Sky, a science and technology man from Tsinghua University and MIT, has the title of “Coin Circle Zheng Kai”. Sky said that starting a business in the blockchain industry is like drifting in the turbulent Amazon River. If you do n’t believe that you will eventually reach the sea, you will be thrown off. Sky believes that Bitcoin is essentially a consensus based on time. Halving is like escaping the monsters, and each level increases the consensus.

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On May 13th, Block 101 Luna talked to F2Pool and Cobo co-founder Shenyu, and talked about the “new” story of Bitcoin. Leo ’s Godfish talked to us about the monopoly of computing power, mining pool operations, halving and Cobo ’s future development goals. He said that 80–90% of personal assets are Bitcoin, and about 10% of Ethereum and other Strange coins from mining. It is called “the first segment of the coin circle” because “more pits are filled, so in the end each pit becomes a stalk.”

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On May 14, Niu Fengxuan, CEO of DappReview, talked about “how ordinary people make money through Dapp”. Niu Fengxuan graduated from Fudan and Stanford. He is a serious game enthusiast. He has written many in-depth game evaluations and is an early participant of Dapp. He said that many people think that the biggest application of blockchain is speculation, but the technology ultimately serves products and applications. In the long run, if blockchain can really bring changes and innovations to the world technically, then it must be C-side users should feel it in a more friendly way in other fields.


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On May 15th, Block 101 Yingge talked to IOST co-founder Terry and talked about “The Blockchain Ideal of Princeton Schoolmaster”. Terry told us about his sad history, happy history, and experience and experience of mining from college mining to graduate school to entrepreneurship, talked about the development direction of the blockchain market, and interacted with fans.


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On May 16th, senior expert Zao Shen brought a live broadcast on the theme of “Depth Is Insufficient In Operation, How To Play With Crash”. In this live broadcast, in addition to analyzing the macro level of the economy, Zao Shen also focused on sharing The specific operation skills emphasized the principle of buying and selling, and finally commented on the hot events such as the recent Federal Reserve announcement that it will not fall to negative interest rates.


3.TokenClub operation data
-Live data: 13 live broadcasts in the past two weeks, with over 600,000 views. TokenClub hosted a total of 835 live broadcasts with a total of 44.25 million views.
-Binary trade data: In the past two weeks, guess the rise and fall to participate in a total of 1060 times, the amount of participation exceeded 2 million TCT. At present, it is guessed that the rise and fall function has participated in a total of 1.11 million times, with a cumulative participation amount of 496 million TCT.
-Chat data: In the past two weeks, a total of 28,950 messages have been generated. A total of 4.83 milliom messages have been launched since the function was launched.
-Mini-game data: The mini-game has participated in a total of 7,830 times in the past two weeks. A total of 1,66 million self-functions have been online.
-Cut leeks game data together: Since the game was launched, the total number of user participation in the game was 954,364 TCT total consumption was 6,27 million gift certificate total consumption was 15,53 million and TCT mining output was 160,48.
-TokenClub KOL data: Over the past two weeks, the total reading volume of the BTCGrandpa article has been viewed by more than 300,000 people.
-Social media data: At present, the number of Weibo official accounts is 17,972 and the number of Twitter followers is 1310, and we have opened the official Medium account this week, welcome to follow.
-Telegram official group data: In the past 2 weeks, there were 310 chats in the group, and the total number of Telegram official groups is currently 2971.
-Medium data: Medium official account u/TokenClub has published 1 excellent articles, official announcements and updates are published in English, welcome to follow.
4.Communities
1)Overseas community
TokenClub held an event for forwarding Twitter and telegram group chats for overseas users. Bitcoin halved in less than two weeks, overseas users are more active in the telegram group, and some friends are more concerned about Binance Block 101 live broadcast, aggregation exchange, TCT usage and other issues, the administrator responded in time.On May 12th, when Bitcoin was halved, TokenClub organized a forwarding Twitter, telegram group chat prize event and participating in a live question asking interactive prize event for overseas users. There are many live broadcast events in the near future. The live broadcast poster information will be released to overseas users as soon as possible. The follow-up TokenClub will translate and broadcast high-quality live broadcast content to Twitter and Medium. Bitcoin halved, overseas users are more active in the telegram group, and some partners are more concerned about block 101 live broadcast, bitcoin future price trend, TCT usage and other issues, the administrator responded in time in the group.

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2)Domestic community
Last Friday, a holiday, the community opened the red envelope rain event, and brought a sincere gift to everyone while relaxing in the holiday. At the same time, it also sent the most sincere blessings to all mothers in the community on Mother’s Day. Thank you for your long-term support and help to the Orange Club community.


The third week of the second 100-day fixed investment plan held this week has been awarded. The participation of this event is still quite positive. This week, the bitcoin halving market was also opened in advance. If it starts according to the first day The small partners participating in the fixed investment should now have a certain floating win, so we adopt the correct cycle investment strategy to believe that it can bring unexpected benefits to everyone.


On May 9th and May 16th, TCT Fortune Free Academy carried out red envelope party activities as scheduled. In the event, in addition to GF red envelopes, students were reminded that there may be a callback risk after the pie halving, and short-term profits are available.


On the evening of May 3rd and May 10th, TCT Fortune Free Academy carried out the 51st and 52nd week sign-in sweepstakes, and rewarded the small TCT partners who had always insisted on signing in. In these two sign-in sweepstakes, the lucky friends received 20–180TCT as a reward. In addition, during the lucky draw, the college friends also actively expressed their opinions on the topic of this year’s bull market.

The Leek Paradise Community Conference will continue as usual every Sunday at 20:00. During the conference, members will discuss recent hot topics, including gifts and blessings for Mother ’s Day, and the halving of Bitcoin everyone is paying attention to. At the end, the friends in the group also showed a rare enthusiasm at the first sight. It seems that the market still affects the mood. The members routinely started a red envelope rain to cheer for the participating partners and encourage everyone to maintain patience and confidence. Of course, at the same time, we are encouraging ourselves to see the community meeting next week. Come on!

TokenClub volunteer community, sign in red envelopes every day, as long as you sign in every day, you can get good benefits, friends join us quickly! In the past two weeks, the community has conducted active partners.

TCT has been listed on Binance、Okex、Gate.io、ZB-M、MXC、Biki、Coinex、BigOne、Coinbene、Cybex、SWFT、Loopring、Rootrex etc.
TokenClub website: www.tokenclub.com
Telegram:https://t.me/token\_club
TokenClub App download QR code

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submitted by tokenclubtct to u/tokenclubtct [link] [comments]

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