Finding a digital currency transaction ID (TXID) – CoinJar

What is this? I sent some Bitcoin from Blockchain to Binance 55 Hours ago. Still no confirmation. TXID- ee604d44de5c80c69a922589ec0312b0efb37240bd0eff14e3908d1ae47ee311

What is this? I sent some Bitcoin from Blockchain to Binance 55 Hours ago. Still no confirmation. TXID- ee604d44de5c80c69a922589ec0312b0efb37240bd0eff14e3908d1ae47ee311 submitted by GoTfan121 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

So back in 2014 I put 60 bucks into a bitcoin mining service. Lost the seed but I have all the txIDs on Blockchains website.

So when I was a kid I put 60 bucks into bitcoin miner hashflare.io then I deposited it into dark wallet, a few years later when bitcoin started taking off i tried to recover the wallet but I lost the seed. But while going through hashflare I found all the TxIDs from my hashflare withdrawls. I followed that onto blockchains website and now I can see the amount I have now, is there any way to transfer it off of Blockchain and into my current wallet?
submitted by elijahross to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What is this? I sent some Bitcoin from Blockchain to Binance 55 Hours ago. Still no confirmation. TXID- ee604d44de5c80c69a922589ec0312b0efb37240bd0eff14e3908d1ae47ee311

What is this? I sent some Bitcoin from Blockchain to Binance 55 Hours ago. Still no confirmation. TXID- ee604d44de5c80c69a922589ec0312b0efb37240bd0eff14e3908d1ae47ee311 submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Trying to find my txid while blockchain gives me an error code. /r/Bitcoin

Trying to find my txid while blockchain gives me an error code. /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

I can't find my TXID on blockchain.com /r/Bitcoin

I can't find my TXID on blockchain.com /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

So back in 2014 I put 60 bucks into a bitcoin mining service. Lost the seed but I have all the txIDs on Blockchains website. /r/Bitcoin

So back in 2014 I put 60 bucks into a bitcoin mining service. Lost the seed but I have all the txIDs on Blockchains website. /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Sent mistakenly 1 BTC to Huobi's cold, please help me to contact CEO (+1 year unresolved)

Hi everyone, 19 months ago I sent mistakenly 1 BTC to the Huobi's cold wallet. Yes, I'm retard, I feel terrible.
Transaction:
https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/4769c93d8c9e0d5eaf8311ac8af513e23096ae461da0256a77cf70ca73fd4e4b

How I send mistakenly 1 BTC to the Huobi Cold Wallet?
A day I was watching a BTC rich list and exploring the addresses. I'm unsure how exactly it happens because I verified the address, but when I sent 1 BTC I did mistakenly to the wrong address!!! I verified that I was sending to the correct address, but I had to remake the sendship because the wallet crashed, probably there was the problem, the huobi's cold wallet address was in the clipboard. Anyways I don't have certainty how it happens.List: https://bitinfocharts.com/top-100-richest-bitcoin-addresses.html
It was a mistake, I work often sending and receiving BTC. When you do a certain task all the days copying wrong data could be a TERRIBLE but EASY mistake to do, because we are humans and we fall in the trust. As you did a task correctly many many times you earn trust on yourself and try save time. If it didn't happens to you ever you aren't being honest.

7 months talking with Huobi Customer Support (part 1)
I tried to contact Huobi's customer support. First they first didn't understand me, thinking that I tried to deposit on Huobi and sent to a wrong address. After they understand they told me that the address doesn't belongs to Huobi and they can't help me. That is false, I did an investigation and they have direct relation with this address, they can help me. Read my following analysis please:

Huobi Ownership Analysis
Searching, sites says that the address belongs to Huobi Huobi support says that address doesn't belongs to Huobi
I don't know if belongs to Huobi or not, but I can deduct and track that the address is related with Huobi
Why? The address 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 regulary sent big amounts to 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D
Then, is VERY PROBABLY THAT 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 OWNER KNOWS 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER And the 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER can help me.
Searching, some sites (and sites like USDT Official page https://web.archive.org/web/20181113185656/https://wallet.tether.to/richlist) says that the address 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D belongs to Huobi
Again, I don't know really if the address is of Huobi, but I can deduct and track that the address is related with Huobi
Why? On my Huobi account I made only 2 BTC withdraws from Huobi in the past
2018-05-08 18:36:45 , txid: 0e6bf02323ebc166b6638afcd6170ecb73948748235e687def7e7a3cb1902fca , it has 239 inputs 2018-05-08 20:17:10 , txid: b59b988d642fe3773268e246ef1a0d048bbd3f734a611d00722b39126ed9e20b , it has 239 inputs too
In both transaction, all inputs are addresses that BELONGS TO HUOBI, because you huobi are sending me BTC
Both transactions has 39 addresses as inputs in common (all huobi address, maybe deposit addresses of anothers huobi users)
Example: 1M9ndPSQ4fmMKaKW2oX7LtjduDqYUcFKCW
Analyzing the transactions of this address, we can found many transactions sending BTC to 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER
https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/740236113bde5a95cfc168d732762be00eee435556c686b00b74b85b3e6c3f77https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/e2367daa464818d46da93e9a364f23536ef31e767f04cd01ff0a01e2baca6f87https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/5c16244c0efaba9aeb1e141e9ff4c8702f7a34f44bac73121ea6f55eb98adab2https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/69e73d1bbcdcb8ffacf0ea555298ee226f1740c02d1131e2db72e7ade32aace1https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/110eff2733a88b626ca38d63b9f2d8b6d5b3e26574f1d918c99c36c785eb0d56
User withdraw? No BECAUSE the amounts are lower than the quantity required for a Huobi withdraw (0.01 BTC) VERY VERY PROBABLY that 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER is Huobi And seeing all transactions, probably all of them are being used to pay USDT fees (i didn't study this part but isn't relevant)
Then, if 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER is Huobi, you can help me High probably that you know the 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 OWNER , address which I mistakenly sent 1 BTC
Please, tell him that give me back my 1 BTC
See my transactions asking the 3CBq.. owner give my BTC back: https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/d60eed9b025f9c5d3fe3b168e2f64e0abcb880123c1c0a51290eaeddbd60b8d7https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/0015646c3df821b035a15837b26c65f458276c05128bbaeae3293284d178d14e
sending to 1SentYou1BtcP1sBackToMeP1sNznQ1zH(read the address) and to 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 with the same addresses used to send 1 BTC to 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64

7 months talking with Huobi Customer Support (part 2)
After understanding this , they asked me my consent to pay a fee. I agreed. After they asked me sign a message with my privates keys. I did it. And finally they tell me "Wait". I'm waiting 7 months ago, all months I ask and they ever reply the same "We will contact you". Now they told me " Hello,sorry for the inconvenience, we feedback your problem to our technology department. After a series of research and development, but it can not be solved. Please understand this. "
I want to think that the team is failing and Huobi isn't wanting steal my BTC. What they are doing maybe could be illegal. I'm thinking to talk with lawers on Singapore, I don't know what more to do.
I tried to contact the CEO Livio on Twitter ( https://twitter.com/livio_huobi ) but they don't reply me! I want to think that someone else is administering their account.

My ownership evidence:
Message:
I sent mistakenly 1 BTC to the address 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 on these transaction TXID: 4769c93d8c9e0d5eaf8311ac8af513e23096ae461da0256a77cf70ca73fd4e4b Please send me back to 3J4n1P9qX1nnPHxb8e63B8z7HQs65QXRoz or 1NVvNmfpPrGey4fKRUnDrXbzbbZFDqpXHL or 1K8JEvgg3sketnpExziFupBb2UQaQaCiaE 
( Pastebin: https://pastebin.com/K6bXr6Mz )
Signature (1NVvNmfpPrGey4fKRUnDrXbzbbZFDqpXHL)
H/443F0x29qHAQJj8FoizXCX4V+kVzjifKq2LYhsJisjGf5iyBotpF0W7y74lg7vMV9ebsHgaW9FEfzzd8TIA6U= 
Signature (1K8JEvgg3sketnpExziFupBb2UQaQaCiaE)
H7GCXHHb+Iy6T9xu8c6867Wd7u6jc9sabbMVvGsUtEvddKqbslwajYBfFe3stQvIVJ7mK3Nuyh2aKOOdnjfU840= 
Huobi CEO contact me please, my UUID is 1995155

UPDATE 16/06/2019:
All the balance of 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 was sent to 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D. That is an address which is PROPERTY OF HUOBI.834dea449693ac8380eecd906936db0eb514ae9b4426def3e3534c8525447fea
Read my analysis. Tether saying that this wallet is owned by Huobi: https://web.archive.org/web/20181113185656/https://wallet.tether.to/richlist

**UPDATE 13/02/2020:**Now my BTC is there: https://www.blockchain.com/btc/tx/00e702abddccf05a7da50143c3139436a5c6ef0e613593af01cba8c983faa99f
They bloqued me from telegram and support don't help or ignores me
Upvoting this helps me (I'm not suggesting it but I will appreciate)
If someone knows how contact the CEO please help me
submitted by mrb000 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How does the blockchain know how much bitcoin is being sent?

Is it stored in the transaction ID or something?
submitted by Zaidinator7 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoins sent to electrum from Coinbase haven’t shown up at all.

Basically the title, electrum hasn’t even registered the coins as unconfirmed, there’s just nothing there. Any ideas?
submitted by Chickensandcoke to Electrum [link] [comments]

0.5 Bitcoin deposit with 11 confirmations marked as "Pending"

I will update when the date when the 0.5 BTC has been credited. The txid is: https://blockstream.info/tx/837d80a60325ed368553abe3469aa124aabb5e805d851949e0ea1db60c90a415 (Thanks for using Blockstream and not those clowns at Blockchain.com)
No problems with other deposits (0.02, 0.11, 0.12).
Thanks!!! Super awesome seeing such a large platform support Bitcoin!!!
I will update this thread with the results.
EDIT: The Bitcoin transaction was rejected on 5/26/2020. No reason specified and her account was not banned. She was required to scan a QR code in order to have the Bitcoin refunded. She was refunded 0.49981864 BTC on txid: bcac73d996ba35b8ea45f07e6439412a0f60c87b1517cc8aec60a1bf8dc5c962
submitted by BayAreaCoins to CashApp [link] [comments]

Calculate txn_id from raw txn_hex

I'm trying to calculate a txn_id from raw txn_hex. The procedure works fine for legacy TXNs but gets non-expected results on Segwit TXNs. I compared this snippet of code to what txn_id was produced by Electrum and the blockchain.com TXN decoder:
  1. Take in TXN in hex
  2. Convert the hex to binarray
  3. Double hash binarray
  4. Reverse the resultant digest because of endianness
  5. Display in hex.
t0 is my legacy testnet TXN and t1 is my segwit testnet TXN.
Thoughts?

UPDATE

Found the relevant source in Electrum transaction.py:1036
Basically you strip the flags and tx_witnesses listed in the wiki spec
```python

!/usbin/env python3

[repo] https://github.com/brianddk/reddit ... python/txn_hash.py

[ref] https://www.reddit.com/g4hvyf

from hashlib import sha256
def txid(tx): bin = bytes.fromhex(tx) txid = sha256(sha256(bin).digest()).digest()[::-1].hex() return txid

Raw Legacy

t0 = ('0200000001cd3b93f5b24ae190ce5141235091cd93fbb2908e24e5b9ff6776ae' 'c11b0e04e5000000006b4830450221009f156db3585c19fe8e294578edbf5b5e' '4159a7afc3a7a00ebaab080dc25ecb9702202581f8ae41d7ade2f06c9bb9869e' '42e9091bafe39290820438b97931dab61e140121030e669acac1f280d1ddf441' 'cd2ba5e97417bf2689e4bbec86df4f831bf9f7ffd0fdffffff010005d9010000' '00001976a91485eb47fe98f349065d6f044e27a4ac541af79ee288ac00000000')

Raw Segwit

t1 = ('0200000000010100ff121dd31ead0f06e3014d9192be8485afd6459e36b09179' 'd8c372c1c494e20000000000fdffffff013ba3bf070000000017a914051877a0' 'cc43165e48975c1e62bdef3b6c942a38870247304402205644234fa352d1ddbe' 'c754c863638d2c26abb9381966358ace8ad7c52dda4250022074d8501460f4e4' 'f5ca9788e60afafa1e1bcbf93e51529defa48317ad83e069dd012103adc58245' 'cf28406af0ef5cc24b8afba7f1be6c72f279b642d85c48798685f86200000000')

UPDATE Raw Segwit with flags and tx_witnesses stripped

t2 = ('02000000' '0100ff121dd31ead0f06e3014d9192be8485afd6459e36b09179' 'd8c372c1c494e20000000000fdffffff013ba3bf070000000017a914051877a0' 'cc43165e48975c1e62bdef3b6c942a3887' '00000000')
print(f"t0: {txid(t0)}\nt1: {txid(t1)}\nt2: {txid(t2)}")

TXN_IDs from the above python

t0: cb33472bcaed59c66fae30d7802b6ea2ca97dc33c6aad76ce2e553b1b4a4e017

t1: b11fdde7e3e635c7f15863a9399cca42d46b5a42d87f4e779dfd4806af2401ce

t2: d360581ee248be29da9636b3d2e9470d8852de1afcf3c3644770c1005d415b30

TXN_IDs from Electrum

t0: cb33472bcaed59c66fae30d7802b6ea2ca97dc33c6aad76ce2e553b1b4a4e017

t1: d360581ee248be29da9636b3d2e9470d8852de1afcf3c3644770c1005d415b30

```
submitted by brianddk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Open Node Introduces KYC... Here are some Top alternates.

1) Blockonomics : Open Source, very easy to integrate, fully decentralized and an active community to help you out in any way possible.
2) Coinpayments: Offers more than 1500+ altcoins as options for payments.
3) BTCPay Server: Popular choice with a nice following.
submitted by primalfabric to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How do I trace/prove that I sent BTC to a recipient?

I'm going to be very concrete here, so nothing is lost. I needed to send 0.00149759 Bitcoin (BTC) to the address 1Jn5WnoGe9wY9et57ifTCqD3YnfoXyqMmf
So in my Waves.Exchange app, I sent that.
And you can see at the target address that the amount was received at 2020-04-02 5:47:48.
But that does not prove that I sent it: * nothing in the Waves.Exchange app withdrawal transaction has the ultimate recipient address. So a screenshot of my completed transaction only proves I sent it to some gateway * When I click on the txid in the Waves.Exchange app it takes me to a transaction but there is nothing about this Waves txid to link it to the received txid on the bitcoin side ... so anyone could claim they sent the BTC instead of me.
submitted by metaperl to Wavesplatform [link] [comments]

05-24 14:44 - 'Mirror Trading International' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/Orismyname123 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 2-12min

'''
Growing your Bitcoin – Changing your life​
Mirror Trading International (MTI) was established in April 2019. Mirror Trading International is a Trading and Networking company that uses Bitcoin as its Base Currency and to pay member bonuses. It uses an Automated System that takes the hassle out of Forex Trading by doing it all for you.
Johan Steynberg, from Polokwane in South Africa, is the CEO and founder of Mirror Trading International. There is a head office in Northcliff in Johannesburg.
Growing your Bitcoin is at the very heart of Mirror Trading International. Johan’s vision for the company is to provide members with a Passive and Sustainable Income.
As at 23 May 2020, there are over 45,000 members in over 100 countries! and these numbers are growing by the day. There are over 2,893 Bitcoins in trade daily.
Mirror Trading International (MTI) offers a reasonable daily profit; the company does not overstate the potential or make unrealistic promises. Trading and other bonuses are dependent on the daily trade results, so if there is no profit for the day, there can be no bonuses.
This makes the company sustainable and able to grow as the member pool increases. It is both a company for the person who just wants to grow their Bitcoin, and for the Networkers who like to Build Teams, as there are Referral and Binary Bonuses for the qualified members.
The Binary Bonus System is unique among networking companies as these are Paid Weekly and Recur. Mirror Trading International (MTI) is a South African registered company, and these are the registration details:
Registered Name: Mirror Trading International (PTY) LTD Registration Number: 2019/205570/07
Registered South Africa Office :
Mirror Trading International (PTY) LTD 43 Plein Street, Stellenbosch Western Cape, South Africa 7600
Office Hours: 09h00 – 15h00 Weekedays
For More Information contact me in link:
[link]1
recommend way to Transfer Bitcoin To Mirror with Txid: Blockchain
'''
Mirror Trading International
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: Orismyname123
1: ww*.***tagram.com/m*r*o*_t*ading_*nt*rnation*l*/
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Contrats d'exécution consensuels de VDS et processus du téléchargement à la chaîne

Résumé des contrats d’exécution consensuels
Le concept de base du contrat d’exécution consensuels
Contrats d’exécution consensuels, connu sous le nom de contrat intelligent dans l'industrie de la blockchain, mais l'équipe de VDS estime que ce terme est trop marketing, car nous n'avons pas trouvé à quel point la technologie de programmation contractuelle est intelligente jusqu'à présent, il s'agit simplement d'un système décentralisé dans le réseau distribué, la procédure prédéfinie de comportement consensuel formée par l'édition de code. Dans l'esprit de rechercher la vérité à partir des faits, nous pensons qu'il est plus approprié de renommer le contrat intelligent en tant que contrat d'exécution de consensus. Lorsque les humains combineront la technologie blockchain avec la technologie d'intelligence artificielle de AI à l'avenir, les obstacles à la compréhension des noms sont éliminés.
Le contrat d'exécution consensuel peut être appliqué à de nombreuses industries, telles que la finance, l'éducation, les systèmes administratifs, l'Internet des objets, le divertissement en ligne, etc. Grâce à la technologie de la blockchain, dans un réseau distribué spécifique, un script d'exécution qui est formé par l'édition de pré-code sans aucune intervention de tiers et le comportement de consensus des deux parties ou de plusieurs parties impliquées dans le protocole. Il garantit l’exécution sûre, stable et équitable des droits et intérêts de tous les participants au contrat.
Le contrat d'exécution consensuel a joué un rôle dans l'accélération de l'atterrissage de diverses applications pour le développement de l'industrie de la blockchain et a incité davantage de développeurs à y participer activement, révolutionnant l'expérience réelle des produits de la technologie de la blockchain. Tout découle des contributions exceptionnelles de l'équipe Ethereum, ouvrant une nouvelle porte à l'ensemble de l'industrie.
Structure de base et jonction
L’intégration de EVM
La machine virtuelle Ethereum (EVM) utilise un code machine 256 bits et est une machine virtuelle basée sur la pile utilisée pour exécuter les contrats d'exécution consensuels d'Ethereum. Étant donné que l'EVM est conçu pour le système Ethereum, le modèle de compte Ethereum (Account Model) est utilisé pour la transmission de valeurs. La conception de la chaîne VDS est basée sur le modèle Bitcoin UTXO. La raison de cette conception est, d'une part, c'est en raison de la nécessité de réaliser la fonction d'échange de résonance de VDS et la fonction d'échange inter-chaîne unidirectionnelle de bitcoin à chaîne VDS, qui peuvent réaliser la génération de deux adresses différentes de bitcoin et VDS avec une clé privée. D'autre part, l'équipe VDS estime que la structure sous-jacente des transactions Bitcoin est plus stable et fiable grâce à 10 ans de pratique sociale. Par conséquent, VDS utilise une couche d'abstraction de compte (Account Abstraction Layer) pour convertir le modèle UTXO en un modèle de compte qui peut être exécuté par EVM. De plus, VDS a ajouté une interface basée sur le modèle de compte, afin qu'EVM puisse lire directement les informations sur la chaîne VDS. Il convient de noter que la couche d'abstraction de compte peut masquer les détails de déploiement de certaines fonctions spécifiques et établir une division des préoccupations pour améliorer l'interopérabilité et l'indépendance de la plate-forme.
Dans le système Bitcoin, ce n'est qu'après la vérification du script de déverrouillage (Script Sig) et du script de verrouillage (Script Pub Key) que la sortie de transaction correspondante peut être dépensée.
Par exemple, le script de verrouillage verrouille généralement une sortie de transaction sur une adresse bitcoin (la valeur de hachage de la clé publique). Ce n'est que lorsque les conditions de configuration du script de déverrouillage et du script de verrouillage correspondent, que l'exécution du script combiné affiche le résultat sous la forme True (la valeur de retour de système est 1), de sorte que la sortie de transaction correspondante sera dépensée.
Dans le système distribué de VDS, nous soulignons l'opportunité de l'exécution du contrat d'exécution consensuel. Par conséquent, nous avons ajouté les opérateurs OP_CREATE et OP_CALL au script de verrouillage. Lorsque le système de VDS détecte cet opérateur, les nœuds de l'ensemble du réseau exécuteront la transaction. De cette façon, le rôle joué par le script Bitcoin est plus de transférer les données pertinentes vers EVM, pas seulement en tant que langage de codage. Tout comme Ethereum exécute un contrat d'exécution de consensus, le contrat déclenché par les opérateurs OP_CREATE et OP_CALL, EVM changera son état dans sa propre base de données d'état.
Compte tenu de la facilité d'utilisation du contrat d'exécution du consensus de la chaîne VDS, il est nécessaire de vérifier les données qui déclenchent le contrat et la valeur de hachage de la clé publique de la source de données.
Afin d'éviter que la proportion d'UTXO sur la chaîne de VDS ne soit trop importante, la sortie de transaction de OP_CREATE et OP_CALL est t conçue pour être dépensée. La sortie de OP_CALL peut envoyer des fonds pour d'autres contrats ou adresses de hachage de clé publique.
Tout d’abord, pour le contrat d'exécution consensuel créé sur la chaîne VDS, le système généreraune valeur de hachage de transaction pour l'appel de contrat.Le contrat nouvellement libéré a un solde initial de 0 (les contrats avec un solde initial ne sont pas 0 ne sont pas pris en charge). Afin de répondre aux besoins du contrat d'envoi de fonds, VDS utilise l'opérateur OP_CALL pour créer une sortie de transaction. Le script de sortie du contrat d'envoi de fonds est similaire à :
1: the version of the VM
10000: gas limit for the transaction
100: gas price in Qtum satoshis
0xF012: data to send to the contract (usually using the solidity ABI)
0x1452b22265803b201ac1f8bb25840cb70afe3303:
ripemd-160 hash of the contract txid OP_CALL
Ce script n'est pas compliqué et OP_CALL effectue la plupart du travail requis. VDS définit le coût spécifique de la transaction (sans tenir compte de la situation de out-of-gas) comme Output Value, qui est Gas Limit. Le mécanisme spécifique du Gas sera discuté dans les chapitres suivants. Lorsque le script de sortie ci-dessus est ajouté à la blockchain, la sortie établit une relation correspondante avec le compte du contrat et se reflète dans le solde du contrat. Le solde peut être compris comme la somme des coûts contractuels disponibles.
La sortie d'adresse de hachage de clé publique standard est utilisée pour le processus de base des transactions de contrat, et le processus de transaction entre les contrats est également généralement cohérent. En outre, vous pouvez effectuer des transactions par P2SH et des transactions non standard (non-standard transactions). Lorsque le contrat actuel doit être échangé avec un autre contrat ou une adresse de hachage de clé publique, la sortie disponible dans le compte du contrat sera consommée. Cette partie de la sortie consommée doit être présente pour la vérification des transactions dans le réseau de VDS, que nous appelons la transaction attendue du contrat (Expected Contract Transactions). Étant donné que la transaction attendue du contrat est générée lorsque le mineur vérifie et exécute la transaction, plutôt que d'être générée par l'utilisateur de la transaction, elle ne sera pas diffusée sur l'ensemble du réseau.
Le principe de fonctionnement principal de la transaction attendue du contrat est réalisé par le code OP_SPEND. OP_CREATE et OP_CALL ont deux modes de fonctionnement. Lorsque l'opérateur est utilisé comme script de sortie, EVM l'exécute, lorsque l'opérateur est utilisé comme script d'entrée, EVM ne sera pas exécuté (sinon il provoquera une exécution répétée). Dans ce cas, OP_CREATE et OP_CALL peuvent être utilisés comme Opération sans commandement. OP_CREATE et OP_CALL reçoivent la valeur de hachage de transaction transmise par OP_SPEND et renvoient 1 ou 0 (c'est-à-dire il peut être dépensé ou pas). Il montre l'importance de OP_SPEND dans la transaction attendue de l'intégralité du contrat. Plus précisément, lorsque OP_SPEND transmet la valeur de hachage de transaction à OP_CREATE et OP_CALL, OP_CREATE et OP_CALL comparent si la valeur de hachage existe dans la liste des transactions attendues du contrat. S'il existe, renvoyez 1 pour dépenser, sinon retournez 0, ce n'est pas pour dépenser. Cette logique fournit indirectement un moyen complet et sûr de garantir que les fonds du contrat ne peuvent être utilisés que par le contrat, ce qui est cohérent avec le résultat des transactions UTXO ordinaires.
Lorsque le contrat EVM envoie des fonds à l'adresse de hachage de clé publique ou à un autre contrat, une nouvelle transaction sera établie. À l'aide de l'algorithme de Consensus-critical coin picking, la sortie de transaction la plus appropriée peut être sélectionnée dans le pool de sortie disponible du contrat. La sortie de transaction sélectionnée sera utilisée comme script d'entrée pour exécuter un seul OP_SPEND, et la sortie est l'adresse cible des fonds, et les fonds restants seront renvoyés au contrat, tout en modifiant la sortie disponible pour la consommation. Ensuite, la valeur de hachage de cette transaction sera ajoutée à la liste des transactions attendues du contrat. Lorsque la transaction est exécutée, la transaction sera immédiatement ajoutée au bloc. Une fois que les mineurs de la chaîne ont vérifié et exécuté la transaction, la liste des transactions attendues du contrat est à nouveau parcourue. Une fois la vérification correcte, la valeur de hachage est supprimée de la table. De cette façon, l'utilisation de OP_SPEND peut effectivement empêcher l'utilisation de valeurs de hachage codées en dur pour modifier le coût de la sortie.
La couche d'abstraction des comptes VDS élimine la nécessité pour l'EVM d'accorder trop d'attention à coin-picking. Il lui suffit de connaître le solde du contrat et peut échanger des fonds avec d'autres contrats ou même des adresses de hachage de clé publique. De cette façon, seule une légère modification du contrat d'exécution du consensus Ethereum peut répondre aux exigences de fonctionnement du contrat VDS.
En d'autres termes, tant que le contrat d'exécution consensuel peut être exécuté sur la chaîne Ethereum, il peut s'exécuter sur la chaîne VDS.
Achèvement de AAL
La conception de la chaîne VDS est basée sur le modèle Bitcoin UTXO. La plate-forme générale de contrat d'exécution de consensus utilise le modèle de compte. Étant donné que le contrat en tant qu'entité nécessite un logo de réseau, ce logoest l'adresse du contrat, de sorte que le fonctionnement et la gestion du contrat d'exécution consensuel peuvent être effectués par cette adresse. La couche d'abstraction de compte est ajoutée à la conception du modèle (Account Abstraction Layer, AAL) de chaîne de VDS, qui est utilisée pour convertir le modèle UTXO en un modèle de compte qui peut être exécuté par le contrat.
Pour les développeurs qui exécutent des contrats par consensus, le modèle de compte de la machine virtuelle est relativement simple. Il prend en charge l'interrogation des soldes des contrats et peut également envoyer des fonds pour d'autres contrats. Bien que ces opérations semblent très simples et basiques, toutes les transactions de la chaîne VDS utilisent le langage de script Bitcoin, et il est plus compliqué que prévu d'être implémenté dans la couche d'abstraction de compte de la chaîne VDS basée sur le modèle Bitcoin UTXO. AAL a donc élargi sa base en ajoutant trois nouveaux opérateurs :
OP_CREATE est utilisé pour effectuer la création de contrats intelligents, transmettre le code d'octet transmis via la transaction à la base de données de stockage de contrats de la machine virtuelle et générer un compte de contrat.
OP_CALL est utilisé pour transférer les données pertinentes et les informations d'adresse nécessaires pour appeler le contrat et exécuter le contenu du code dans le contrat. (Cet opérateur peut également envoyer des fonds pour des contrats d'exécution consensuels).
OP_SPEND utilise la valeur de hachage de ID de contrat actuel comme transaction d'entrée HASH ou transaction HASH envoyée à l'UTXO du contrat, puis utilise OP_SPEND comme instruction de dépense pour créer un script de transaction.
Utilisation des Contrats et processus du téléchargement à la chaîne
Rédiger les contrats
Il est actuellement possible d'utiliser le langage Solidity pour rédiger des contrats d'exécution de consensus.
Utilisez Solidity Remix ou un autre Solidity IDE pour l'écriture et la compilation de code.
solidity remix(https://remix.ethereum.org/
Il est recommandé d'utiliser le mode homestead pour compiler.
Il est recommandé d'utiliser la version solidité 0.4.24 (si d'autres versions sont utilisées, cela peut provoquer des erreurs ou des échecs).
La syntaxe Solidity peut être référencée(https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en)
Compiler et déployer les contrats
Fonctionnement du contrat intelligent de vdsd
Examiner les variables de fonctionnement de l'environnement
vdsd -txindex=1 -logevents=1 -record-log-opcodes=1 -regtest=1
> Les tests sous contrat sont effectués dans l'environnement de test. Il est recommandé de tester après avoir atteint une hauteur de 440 blocs.
440 blocs hautement achevés l'opération de retour de fonds après les événements anormaux du contrat (refund) et (revert).
La commande de contrat de déploiement est :
```vds-cli deploycontract bytecode ABI parameters```
- bytecode (string, required) contract bytecode.
- ABI (string, required) ABI String must be JSON formatted.
- parameters (string, required) a JSON array of parameters.
Cette fonction est utilisée pour l'exécution du constructeur du contrat avec les paramètres entrants pour obtenir le ByteCode qui est finalement utilisé pour le déploiement.
(Cette méthode consiste à associer le bytecode à ABI et à le stocker localement pour l'enregistrement. Il peut appeler des méthodes internes localement et renvoyer le bytecode approprié)
```vds-cli createcontract bytecode (gaslimit gasprice senderaddress broadcast)```
- bytecode (string, required) contract bytecode.
- gaslimit (numeric or string, optional) gasLimit, default is DEFAULT_GAS_LIMIT, recommended value is 250000.
- gasprice (numeric or string, optional) gasprice, default is DEFAULT_GAS_PRICE, recommended value is 0.00000040.
- senderaddress (string, optional) The vds address that will be used to create the contract.
- broadcast (bool, optional, default=true) Whether to broadcast the transaction or not.
- changeToSender (bool, optional, default=true) Return the change to the sender.
La valeur de retour est : txid, éxpéditeur, hachage de l'expéditeur160, adresse du contrat
Consulter si la commande a été exécutée avec succès :
```vds-cli gettransactionreceipt txid```
La valeur de retour de txid pour les transactions non contractuelles est vide
La valeur de retour est : Les informations pertinentes de txid sur la BlockHash Hachage du bloc
- blockNumber Hauteur de bloc
- transactionHash Hachage de transaction
- transactionIndex La position de l'échange dans le bloc
- from Hachage de l’adresse de l’expéditeur 160
- to Le destinataire est l'adresse du contrat, le lieu de création de la transaction contractuelle est 00000000000000000000000000000
- cumulativeGasUsed Gas accumulé
- gasUsed Gaz réellement utilisé
- contractAddress Adresse du contrat
- excepted Y a-t-il des erreurs
- exceptedMessage Message d'erreur
-
Il convient de noter que le champ excepted n'est pas None, ce qui indique que l'exécution du contrat a échoué. Bien que la transaction puisse être vérifiée sur la chaîne, cela ne signifie pas que le contrat a été exécuté avec succès, c'est-à-dire que les frais de traitement pour l'exécution de ce contrat ne sont pas remboursables. Les frais de traitement ne seront remboursés que si la méthode revert est entrée dans le contrat, et les frais de méthode ne seront pas remboursés pour la méthode assert.
Appel des contrats
```vds-cli addcontract name contractaddress ABI decription```
- name (string required) contract name.
- contractaddress (string required) contract address.
- ABI (string, required) ABI String must be JSON formatted.
- description (string, optional) The description to this contract.
Cette fonction est utilisée pour ajouter le contrat ABI à la base de données locale.
```vds-cli getcontractinfo contractaddress```
- contractaddress (string required) contract address.
Cette fonction est utilisée pour obtenir les informations du contrat ajouté.
```vds-cli callcontractfunc contractaddress function parameters```
- contractaddress (string, required) The contract address that will receive the funds and data.
- function (string, required) The contract function.
- parameters (string, required) a JSON array of parameters.
Cette fonction renverra le résultat de l'exécution lors de l'appel de la méthode constante ordinaire, comme l'appel de la méthode d'opération de données de contrat retournera la chaîne de format hexadécimal du script d'opération.
```vds-cli sendtocontract contractaddress data (amount gaslimit gasprice senderaddress broadcast)```
- contractaddress (string, required) The contract address that will receive the funds and data.
- datahex (string, required) data to send.
- amount (numeric or string, optional) The amount in " + CURRENCY_UNIT + " to send. eg 0.1, default: 0
- gaslimit (numeric or string, optional) gasLimit, default is DEFAULT_GAS_LIMIT, recommended value is 250000.
- gasprice (numeric or string, optional) gasprice, default is DEFAULT_GAS_PRICE, recommended value is 0.00000040.
- senderaddress (string, optional) The vds address that will be used to create the contract.
- broadcast (bool, optional, default=true) Whether to broadcast the transaction or not.
- changeToSender (bool, optional, default=true) Return the change to the sender.
Cette fonction est utilisée pour envoyer le script d'opération de contrat au contrat spécifié et le faire enregistrer sur la blockchain.
Consultation des résultats d’exécution des contrats
```vds-cli gettransaction txid```
Cette commande est utilisée pour afficher les heures de confirmation de la transaction de portefeuille actuelle.
```vds-cli gettransactionreceipt txid```
Cette commande est utilisée pour vérifier les résultats d'exécution de la création de contrat et des transactions d'appel, s'il y a des exceptions levées et des consommations réelles de GAS.
`${datadir}/vmExecLogs.json` enregistrera les appels de contrat sur la blockchain. Ce fichier servira d'interface externe pour les événements de contrat.
Interface d'appel des contrats
l Interface de création de contrat createcontract
l Interface de déploiement de contrat deploycontract
l Interface d'ajout ABI addcontract
l Interface d’appel des contrats avec l’opération des fons sendtocontract
l Interface de lecture des informations sur les contrats callcontractfunc
l Interface d'acquisition d'informations sur l'exécution des transactions contractuelles gettransactionreceipt
L’expliquation des coûts d’expoitation des contrats
Les coûts de fonctionnement de la création d'un contrat sont toutes des méthodes estimées, et un succès d'exécution à 100% ne peut pas être garanti, car gas limit a une limite supérieure de 50000000, et les contrats dépassant cette limite entraîneront un échec. La chaîne de VDS utilise une méthode de rendre la monnaie, ce qui signifie que même si beaucoup de gaz est envoyé, le mineur n'utilisera pas tout le gas et restituera le gas restant. Alors ne vous inquiétez pas de dépenser trop de gas.
Le coût de création d'un contrat est approximativement de la taille du Byte Code * 300 comme gas limit, le gas price minimum est de 0.0000004, gas price * gas limit est le coût de création d'un contrat.
En ce qui concerne l'exécution de la méthode dans un contrat, le gas requis est estimé. En raison de la congestion du réseau, l'estimation ne garantit pas que 100% peuvent être téléchargés avec succès dans la chaîne. Par conséquent, je crains de tromper et de demander au développeur de vérifier les résultats.
submitted by YvanMay to u/YvanMay [link] [comments]

Sent mistakenly 1 BTC to Huobi's cold, please help me to contact CEO (7 months!!)

Hi everyone, 7 months ago I sent mistakenly 1 BTC to the Huobi's cold wallet. Yes, I'm retard, I feel terrible.

Transaction:
https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/4769c93d8c9e0d5eaf8311ac8af513e23096ae461da0256a77cf70ca73fd4e4b

How I send mistakenly 1 BTC to the Huobi Cold Wallet?
A day I was watching a BTC rich list and exploring the addresses. I'm unsure how exactly it happens because I verified the address, but when I sent 1 BTC I did mistakenly to the wrong address!!! I verified that I was sending to the correct address, but I had to remake the sendship because the wallet crashed, probably there was the problem, the huobi's cold wallet address was in the clipboard. Anyways I don't have certainty how it happens.List: https://bitinfocharts.com/top-100-richest-bitcoin-addresses.html
It was a mistake, I work often sending and receiving BTC. When you do a certain task all the days copying wrong data could be a TERRIBLE but EASY mistake to do, because we are humans and we fall in the trust. As you did a task correctly many many times you earn trust on yourself and try save time. If it didn't happens to you ever you aren't being honest.

7 months talking with Huobi Customer Support (part 1)
I tried to contact Huobi's customer support. First they first didn't understand me, thinking that I tried to deposit on Huobi and sent to a wrong address. After they understand they told me that the address doesn't belongs to Huobi and they can't help me. That is false, I did an investigation and they have direct relation with this address, they can help me. Read my following analysis please:

Huobi Ownership Analysis
Searching, sites says that the address belongs to Huobi Huobi support says that address doesn't belongs to Huobi
I don't know if belongs to Huobi or not, but I can deduct and track that the address is related with Huobi
Why? The address 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 regulary sent big amounts to 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D
Then, is VERY PROBABLY THAT 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 OWNER KNOWS 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER And the 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER can help me.
Searching, some sites (and sites like USDT Official page https://web.archive.org/web/20181113185656/https://wallet.tether.to/richlist) says that the address 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D belongs to Huobi
Again, I don't know really if the address is of Huobi, but I can deduct and track that the address is related with Huobi
Why? On my Huobi account I made only 2 BTC withdraws from Huobi in the past
2018-05-08 18:36:45 , txid: 0e6bf02323ebc166b6638afcd6170ecb73948748235e687def7e7a3cb1902fca , it has 239 inputs 2018-05-08 20:17:10 , txid: b59b988d642fe3773268e246ef1a0d048bbd3f734a611d00722b39126ed9e20b , it has 239 inputs too
In both transaction, all inputs are addresses that BELONGS TO HUOBI, because you huobi are sending me BTC
Both transactions has 39 addresses as inputs in common (all huobi address, maybe deposit addresses of anothers huobi users)
Example: 1M9ndPSQ4fmMKaKW2oX7LtjduDqYUcFKCW
Analyzing the transactions of this address, we can found many transactions sending BTC to 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER
https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/740236113bde5a95cfc168d732762be00eee435556c686b00b74b85b3e6c3f77https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/e2367daa464818d46da93e9a364f23536ef31e767f04cd01ff0a01e2baca6f87https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/5c16244c0efaba9aeb1e141e9ff4c8702f7a34f44bac73121ea6f55eb98adab2https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/69e73d1bbcdcb8ffacf0ea555298ee226f1740c02d1131e2db72e7ade32aace1https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/110eff2733a88b626ca38d63b9f2d8b6d5b3e26574f1d918c99c36c785eb0d56
User withdraw? No BECAUSE the amounts are lower than the quantity required for a Huobi withdraw (0.01 BTC) VERY VERY PROBABLY that 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER is Huobi And seeing all transactions, probably all of them are being used to pay USDT fees (i didn't study this part but isn't relevant)
Then, if 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D OWNER is Huobi, you can help me High probably that you know the 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 OWNER , address which I mistakenly sent 1 BTC
Please, tell him that give me back my 1 BTC
See my transactions asking the 3CBq.. owner give my BTC back: https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/d60eed9b025f9c5d3fe3b168e2f64e0abcb880123c1c0a51290eaeddbd60b8d7https://www.blockchain.com/es/btc/tx/0015646c3df821b035a15837b26c65f458276c05128bbaeae3293284d178d14e
sending to 1SentYou1BtcP1sBackToMeP1sNznQ1zH(read the address) and to 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 with the same addresses used to send 1 BTC to 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64

7 months talking with Huobi Customer Support (part 2)
After understanding this , they asked me my consent to pay a fee. I agreed. After they asked me sign a message with my privates keys. I did it. And finally they tell me "Wait". I'm waiting 7 months ago, all months I ask and they ever reply the same "We will contact you". Now they told me " Hello,sorry for the inconvenience, we feedback your problem to our technology department. After a series of research and development, but it can not be solved. Please understand this. "
I want to think that the team is failing and Huobi isn't wanting steal my BTC. What they are doing maybe could be illegal. I'm thinking to talk with lawers on Singapore, I don't know what more to do.
I tried to contact the CEO Livio on Twitter ( https://twitter.com/livio_huobi ) but they don't reply me! I want to think that someone else is administering their account.

My ownership evidence:
Message:
I sent mistakenly 1 BTC to the address 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 on these transaction TXID: 4769c93d8c9e0d5eaf8311ac8af513e23096ae461da0256a77cf70ca73fd4e4b Please send me back to 3J4n1P9qX1nnPHxb8e63B8z7HQs65QXRoz or 1NVvNmfpPrGey4fKRUnDrXbzbbZFDqpXHL or 1K8JEvgg3sketnpExziFupBb2UQaQaCiaE 
( Pastebin: https://pastebin.com/K6bXr6Mz )
Signature (1NVvNmfpPrGey4fKRUnDrXbzbbZFDqpXHL)
H/443F0x29qHAQJj8FoizXCX4V+kVzjifKq2LYhsJisjGf5iyBotpF0W7y74lg7vMV9ebsHgaW9FEfzzd8TIA6U= 
Signature (1K8JEvgg3sketnpExziFupBb2UQaQaCiaE)
H7GCXHHb+Iy6T9xu8c6867Wd7u6jc9sabbMVvGsUtEvddKqbslwajYBfFe3stQvIVJ7mK3Nuyh2aKOOdnjfU840= 
Huobi CEO contact me please, my UUID is 1995155

UPDATE 16/06/2019:
All the balance of 3Cbq7aT1tY8kMxWLbitaG7yT6bPbKChq64 was sent to 1LAnF8h3qMGx3TSwNUHVneBZUEpwE4gu3D. That is an address which is PROPERTY OF HUOBI. Read my analysis. Tether saying that this wallet is owned by Huobi: https://web.archive.org/web/20181113185656/https://wallet.tether.to/richlist

Please upvote this and help me , I don't want to start legal actions , please help me
submitted by mrb000 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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We have referenced a piece of the reliably happened issues in the above bit because of which Binance clients become totally baffled. This will in actuality happen considering the path that here just it is obviously that the subject referenced right presently relates to their money related issues. At this moment is all that may be relied upon to foment somebody. Having considered all these, we chose to demonstrate this site page to make our watchers especially familiar with the help bundle where they may solicit the course from activity at the present time. It is clear in all term that interfacing with concerned nerds is the best decision to beat the issues at the most prompt possibility. Binanceclients meet such sort of issues dependably due to some passage of some upsetting section. The thing or bothersome changes. In that condition, clients ought to quickly call Binance association number as opposed to getting pushed or staying by any increasingly stretched out for the distinction in conditions into a most distinguishably horrendous one. Clients on a very basic level should be set up to confront any of the as of late referenced issues as the howdy tech things can be never be kept up a vital good ways from the assault of eccentric issues. This is the clarification we have made our cost free number open online to give a clear access to expert social affair for clients. Pull again from binance to wrong address Binancewill start the modified withdrawal process when you click the Withdrawal Confirmation button in your E-mail account. Tragically, it is extremely unrealistic to stop this once started. Because of the obscurity of the blockchain, Binance is besides unfit to find where your preferences have been sent. In the event that you have sent your coins to an ill-advised territory inadvertently, you should utilize unmistakable designs to try to find similarly as contact the beneficiary of your advantages. On the off chance that you have pulled back your points of interest for another trade with a confused or void tag/required depiction, you should contact the getting trade with your TxID to show up out of your advantages.
submitted by uallknowmewhoami to u/uallknowmewhoami [link] [comments]

Technical: More channel mechanisms!

This is a followup of my older post about the history of payment channel mechanisms.
The "modern" payment channel system is Lightning Network, which uses bidirectional indefinite-lifetime channels, using HTLCs to trustlessly route through the network.
However, at least one other payment channel mechanism was developed at roughly the same time as Lightning, and there are also further proposals that are intended to replace the core payment channel mechanism in use by Lightning.
Now, in principle, the "magic" of Lightning lies in combining two ingredients:
  1. Offchain updateable systems.
  2. HTLCs to implement atomic cross-system swaps.
We can replace the exact mechanism implementing an offchain updateable system. Secondly we can replace the use of HTLCs with another atomic cross-system swap, which is what we would do when we eventually switch to payment points and scalars from payment hashes and preimages.
So let's clarify what I'll be discussing here:
Now I might use "we" here to refer to what "we" did to the design of Bitcoin, but it is only because "we" are all Satoshi, except for Craig Steven Wright.
So, let's present the other payment channel mechanisms. But first, a digression.

Digression: the new nSequence and OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY

The new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence.
Last time we used nSequence, we had the unfortunate problem that it would be easy to rip off people by offering a higher miner fee for older state where we own more funds, then convince the other side of the channel to give us goods in exchange for a new state with tiny miner fees, then publish both the old state and the new state, then taunt the miners with "so which state is gonna earn you more fees huh huh huh?".
This problem, originally failed by Satoshi, was such a massive facepalm that, in honor of miners doing the economically-rational thing in the face of developer and user demands when given a non-final nSequence, we decided to use nSequence as a flag for the opt-in replace-by-fee.
Basically, under opt-in replace-by-fee, if a transaction had an nSequence that was not 0xFFFFFFFF or 0xFFFFFFFE, then it was opt-in RBF (BIP125). Because you'd totally abuse nSequence to bribe miners in order to steal money from your bartender, especially if your bartender is not a werebear.
Of course, using a 4-byte field for a one-bit flag (to opt-in to RBF or not) was a massive waste of space, so when people started proposing relative locktimes, the nSequence field was repurposed.
Basically, in Bitcoin as of the time of this writing (early 2020) if nSequence is less than 0x80000000 it can be interpreted as a relative timelock. I'll spare you the details here, BIP68 has them, but basically nSequence can indicate (much like nLockTime) either a "real world" relative lock time (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for X seconds before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence) or the actual real world, which is measured in blocks (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for N blocks before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence). Of course, this is the Bitcoin universe and "seconds" is a merely human delusion, so we will use blocks exclusively.
And similarly to OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY, we also added OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY in BIP112. This ensures that the nSequence field is a relative-locktime (i.e. less than 0x80000000) and that it is the specified type (block-based or seconds-based) and that it is equal or higher to the specified minimum relative locktime.
It is important to mention the new, modern meaning of nSequence, because it is central to many of the modern payment channel mechanisms, including Lightning Poon-Dryja.
Lessons learned?

Decker-Wattenhofer "Duplex Micropayment Channels"

Mechanisms-within-mechanisms for a punishment-free bidirectional indefinite-lifetime payment channel.
The Decker-Wattenhofer paper was published in 2015, but the Poon-Dryja "Lightning Network" paper was published in 2016. However, the Decker-Wattenhofer paper mentions the Lightning mechanism, specifically mentioning the need to store every old revocation key (i.e. the problem I mentioned last time that was solved using RustyReddit shachains). Maybe Poon-Dryja presented the Lightning Network before making a final published paper in 2016, or something. Either that or cdecker is the Bitcoin time traveler.
It's a little hard to get an online copy now, but as of late 2019 this seems to work: copy
Now the interesting bit is that Decker-Wattenhofer achieves its goals by combining multiple mechanisms that are, by themselves, workable payment channel mechanisms already, except each has some massive drawbacks. By combining them, we can minimize the drawbacks.
So let's go through the individual pieces.

Indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels

As mentioned before, Spilman channels have the drawback that they have a limited lifetime: the lock time indicated in the backoff transaction or backoff branch of the script. However, instead of an absolute lock time, we can use a relative locktime.
In order to do so, we use a "kickoff" transaction, between the backoff transaction and the funding transaction. Our opening ritual goes this way, between you and our gender-neutral bartender-bancho werebear:
  1. First, you compute the txid for the funding transaction and the kickoff transaction. The funding transaction takes some of your funds and puts it into a 2-of-2 between you and the bartender, and the kickoff is a 1-input 1-output transaction that spends the funding transaction and outputs to another 2-of-2 between you and the bartender.
  2. Then, you generate the backoff transaction, which spends the kickoff transaction and returns all the funds to you. The backoff has a non-zero nSequence, indicating a delay of a number of blocks agreed between you, which is a security/convenience tradeoff parameter
  3. You sign the backoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
  4. The bartender signs the backoff, and gives back the fully-signed transaction to you.
  5. You sign the kickoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
  6. The bartender signs the kickoff, and gives it back to you fully signed.
  7. You sign and broadcast the funding transaction, and both of you wait for the funding transaction to be deeply confirmed.
The above setup assumes you're using SegWit, because transaction malleability fix.
At any time, either you or the bartender can broadcast the kickoff transaction, and once that is done, this indicates closure of the channel. You do this if you have drunk enough alcoholic beverages, or the bartender could do this when he or she is closing the bar.
Now, to get your drinks, you do:
  1. Sign a transaction spending the kickoff, and adding more funds to the bartender, to buy a drink. This transaction is not encumbered with an nSequence.
  2. Hand the signed transaction to the bartender, who provides you with your next drink.
The channel is closed by publishing the kickoff transaction. Both of you have a fully-signed copy of the kickoff, so either of you can initiate the close.
On closure (publication and confirmation of the kickoff transaction), there are two cases:
  1. You fail to pick up any chicks at the bar (I prefer female humans of optimum reproductive age myself rather than nestling birds, but hey, you do you) so you didn't actually spend for drinks at all. In this case, the bartender is not holding any transactions that can spend the kickoff transaction. You wait for the agreed-upon delay after the kickoff is confirmed, and then publish the backoff transaction and get back all the funds that you didn't spend.
  2. You spend all your money on chicks and end up having to be kicked into a cab to get back to your domicile, because even juvenile birds can out-drink you, you pushover. The bartender then uses the latest transaction you gave (the one that gives the most money to him or her --- it would be foolish of him or her to use an earlier version with less money!), signs it, and broadcasts it to get his or her share of the money from the kickoff transaction.

Decrementing nSequence channels

Enforcing order by reducing relative locktimes.
I believe this to be novel to the Decker-Wattenhofer mechanism, though I might be missing some predecessor.
This again uses the new relative-locktime meaning of nSequence. As such, it also uses a kickoff transaction like the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel. Set up is very similar to the setup of the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel, except that because this is bidirectional, we can actually have both sides put money into the initial starting backoff transaction.
We also rename the "backoff" transaction to "state" transaction. Basically, the state transaction indicates how the money in the channel is divided up between the two participants. The "backoff" we sign during the funding ritual is now the first state transaction. Both sides keep track of the current state transaction (which is initialized to the first state transaction on channel establishment).
Finally, the starting nSequence of the first state transaction is very large (usually in the dozens or low hundreds of blocks).
Suppose one participant wants to pay the other. The ritual done is then:
  1. A new version of the current state transaction is created with more money in the payee side.
  2. This new version has nSequence that is one block lower than the current state transaction (in practice it should be a few blocks lower, not just one, because sometimes miners find blocks in quick succession).
  3. Both sides exchange signatures for the new state transaction.
  4. Both sides set the new state transaction as the current state transaction that will be the basis for the next payment.
When the channel is closed by publication of the kickoff transaction, then the transaction with the lowest nSequence becomes valid earlier than the other state transactions. This is enough to enforce that the most recent state transaction (the one with the lowest nSequence, and thus the first to become valid) is published.

Mechanism-within-mechanism

Combining the ingredients of the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels concoction.
Of note is that we can "chain" these mechanisms together in such a way that we strengthen their strengths while covering their weaknesses.
A note is that both the indefinite-lifetime nSequence Spilman variant, and the above decrementing nSequence mechanism, both have "kickoff" transactions.
However, when we chain the two mechanisms together, it turns out that the final transaction of one mechanism also serves as the kickoff of the next mechanism in the chain.
So for example, let's chain two of those decrementing nSequence channels together. Let's make them 144 blocks maximum delay each, and decrement in units of 4 blocks, so each of the chained mechanisms can do 37 updates each.
We start up a new channel with the following transactions:
  1. A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
  2. A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
  3. A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
  4. A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 144, paying to the initial state of the channel.
When we update this channel, we first update the "stage 2" state transaction, replacing it with an nSequence lower by 4 blocks. So after one update our transactions are:
  1. A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
  2. A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
  3. A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
  4. A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 140, paying to the second state of the channel.
The first 3 transactions are the same, only the last one is replaced with a state transaction with lower `nSequence.
Things become interesting when we reach the "stage 2" having nSequence 0. On the next update, we create a new "stage 1", with an nSequence that is 4 lower, and "reset" the "stage 2" back to an nSequence of 144.
This is safe because even though we have a "stage 2" with shorter nSequence, that stage 2 spends a stage 1 with an nSequence of 144, and the stage 1 with nSequence of 140 would beat it to the blockchain first.
This results in us having, not 36 + 36 updates, but instead 36 * 36 updates (1296 updates). 1296 updates is still kinda piddling, but that's much better than just a single-stage decrementing nSequence channel.
The number of stages can be extended indefinitely, and your only drawback would be the amount of blockchain space you'd spend for a unilateral close. Mutual cooperative closes can always shortcut the entire stack of staged transactions and cut it to a single mutual cooperative close transaction.
But that's not all! You might be wondering about the term "duplex" in the name "Duplex Micropayment Channels".
That's because the last decrementing nSequence stage does not hold the money of the participants directly. Instead, the last stage holds two indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels. As you might remember, Spilman channels are unidirectional, so the two Spilman channels represent both directions of the channel. Thus, duplex.
Let's go back to you and your favorite werebear bartender. If you were using a Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channel, you'd have several stages of decrementing nSequence, terminated in two Spilman channels, a you-to-bartender channel and a bartender-to-you channel.
Suppose that, while drinking, the bartender offers you a rebate on each drink if you do some particular service for him or her. Let us not discuss what service this is and leave it to your imagination. So you pay for a drink, decide you want to get the rebate, and perform a service that the bartender finds enjoyable. So you transfer some funds on the you-to-bartender direction, and then later the bartender transfers some funds in the bartender-to-you channel after greatly enjoying your service.
Suppose you now exhaust the you-to-bartender direction. However, you note that the rebates you've earned are enough to buy a few more drinks. What you do instead is to update the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms, and recreate the two Spilman directions such that the you-to-bartender direction contains all your current funds and the bartender-to-you direction contains all the bartender's funds. With this, you are now able to spend even the money you earned from rebates. At the same time, even if the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms only have a few hundred thousand updates, you can still extend the practical number of updates as long as you don't have to reset the Spilman channels too often.

Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories

Because you like channels so much, you put channels inside channels so you could pay while you pay. I N C E P T I O N
The Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels introduced the possibility of nesting a channel mechanism inside another channel mechanism. For example, it suggests nesting a decrementing-nSequence mechanism inside another decrementing-nSequence mechanism, and having as well an unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel at the end. In the Decker-Wattenhofer case, it is used to support the weakness of one mechanism with the strength of another mechanism.
One thing to note is that while the unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel variant used is inherently two-participant (there is one payer and one payee), the decrementing-nSequence channel mechanism can be multiparticipant.
Another thing of note is that nothing prevents one mechanism from hosting just one inner mechanism, just as it is perfectly fine for a Lightning Network channel to have multiple HTLCs in-flight, plus the money in your side, plus the money in the counterparty's side. As these are "just" Bitcoin-enforceable contracts, there is no fundamental difference between an HTLC, and a payment channel mechanism.
Thus the most basic idea of the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories paper is simply that we can have a multiparticipant update mechanism host multiple two-party update mechanisms. The outer multiparticipant update mechanism is called a "channel factory" while the inner two-party update mechanisms are called "channels".
The exact mechanism used in the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer paper uses several decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory, and Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels to implement the channel layer.
However, as noted before, there is no fundamental difference between a Poon-Dryja channel and an HTLC. So it is in fact possible to have chained Decker-Wattenhofer decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory level, while the channels are simply Poon-Dryja channels.

Conclusion

So this concludes for now an alternative mechanism to the classic Poon-Dryja that Lightning uses. The tradeoffs are significantly different between Decker-Wattenhofer vs Poon-Dryja:

Copyright

Copyright 2020 Alan Manuel K. Gloria. Released under CC-BY.
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Technical: A Brief History of Payment Channels: from Satoshi to Lightning Network

Who cares about political tweets from some random country's president when payment channels are a much more interesting and are actually capable of carrying value?
So let's have a short history of various payment channel techs!

Generation 0: Satoshi's Broken nSequence Channels

Because Satoshi's Vision included payment channels, except his implementation sucked so hard we had to go fix it and added RBF as a by-product.
Originally, the plan for nSequence was that mempools would replace any transaction spending certain inputs with another transaction spending the same inputs, but only if the nSequence field of the replacement was larger.
Since 0xFFFFFFFF was the highest value that nSequence could get, this would mark a transaction as "final" and not replaceable on the mempool anymore.
In fact, this "nSequence channel" I will describe is the reason why we have this weird rule about nLockTime and nSequence. nLockTime actually only works if nSequence is not 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. final. If nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF then nLockTime is ignored, because this if the "final" version of the transaction.
So what you'd do would be something like this:
  1. You go to a bar and promise the bartender to pay by the time the bar closes. Because this is the Bitcoin universe, time is measured in blockheight, so the closing time of the bar is indicated as some future blockheight.
  2. For your first drink, you'd make a transaction paying to the bartender for that drink, paying from some coins you have. The transaction has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, and a starting nSequence of 0. You hand over the transaction and the bartender hands you your drink.
  3. For your succeeding drink, you'd remake the same transaction, adding the payment for that drink to the transaction output that goes to the bartender (so that output keeps getting larger, by the amount of payment), and having an nSequence that is one higher than the previous one.
  4. Eventually you have to stop drinking. It comes down to one of two possibilities:
    • You drink until the bar closes. Since it is now the nLockTime indicated in the transaction, the bartender is able to broadcast the latest transaction and tells the bouncers to kick you out of the bar.
    • You wisely consider the state of your liver. So you re-sign the last transaction with a "final" nSequence of 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. the maximum possible value it can have. This allows the bartender to get his or her funds immediately (nLockTime is ignored if nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF), so he or she tells the bouncers to let you out of the bar.
Now that of course is a payment channel. Individual payments (purchases of alcohol, so I guess buying coffee is not in scope for payment channels). Closing is done by creating a "final" transaction that is the sum of the individual payments. Sure there's no routing and channels are unidirectional and channels have a maximum lifetime but give Satoshi a break, he was also busy inventing Bitcoin at the time.
Now if you noticed I called this kind of payment channel "broken". This is because the mempool rules are not consensus rules, and cannot be validated (nothing about the mempool can be validated onchain: I sigh every time somebody proposes "let's make block size dependent on mempool size", mempool state cannot be validated by onchain data). Fullnodes can't see all of the transactions you signed, and then validate that the final one with the maximum nSequence is the one that actually is used onchain. So you can do the below:
  1. Become friends with Jihan Wu, because he owns >51% of the mining hashrate (he totally reorged Bitcoin to reverse the Binance hack right?).
  2. Slip Jihan Wu some of the more interesting drinks you're ordering as an incentive to cooperate with you. So say you end up ordering 100 drinks, you split it with Jihan Wu and give him 50 of the drinks.
  3. When the bar closes, Jihan Wu quickly calls his mining rig and tells them to mine the version of your transaction with nSequence 0. You know, that first one where you pay for only one drink.
  4. Because fullnodes cannot validate nSequence, they'll accept even the nSequence=0 version and confirm it, immutably adding you paying for a single alcoholic drink to the blockchain.
  5. The bartender, pissed at being cheated, takes out a shotgun from under the bar and shoots at you and Jihan Wu.
  6. Jihan Wu uses his mystical chi powers (actually the combined exhaust from all of his mining rigs) to slow down the shotgun pellets, making them hit you as softly as petals drifting in the wind.
  7. The bartender mutters some words, clothes ripping apart as he or she (hard to believe it could be a she but hey) turns into a bear, ready to maul you for cheating him or her of the payment for all the 100 drinks you ordered from him or her.
  8. Steely-eyed, you stand in front of the bartender-turned-bear, daring him to touch you. You've watched Revenant, you know Leonardo di Caprio could survive a bear mauling, and if some posh actor can survive that, you know you can too. You make a pose. "Drunken troll logic attack!"
  9. I think I got sidetracked here.
Lessons learned?

Spilman Channels

Incentive-compatible time-limited unidirectional channel; or, Satoshi's Vision, Fixed (if transaction malleability hadn't been a problem, that is).
Now, we know the bartender will turn into a bear and maul you if you try to cheat the payment channel, and now that we've revealed you're good friends with Jihan Wu, the bartender will no longer accept a payment channel scheme that lets one you cooperate with a miner to cheat the bartender.
Fortunately, Jeremy Spilman proposed a better way that would not let you cheat the bartender.
First, you and the bartender perform this ritual:
  1. You get some funds and create a transaction that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig between you and the bartender. You don't broadcast this yet: you just sign it and get its txid.
  2. You create another transaction that spends the above transaction. This transaction (the "backoff") has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, plus one block. You sign it and give this backoff transaction (but not the above transaction) to the bartender.
  3. The bartender signs the backoff and gives it back to you. It is now valid since it's spending a 2-of-2 of you and the bartender, and both of you have signed the backoff transaction.
  4. Now you broadcast the first transaction onchain. You and the bartender wait for it to be deeply confirmed, then you can start ordering.
The above is probably vaguely familiar to LN users. It's the funding process of payment channels! The first transaction, the one that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig, is the funding transaction that backs the payment channel funds.
So now you start ordering in this way:
  1. For your first drink, you create a transaction spending the funding transaction output and sending the price of the drink to the bartender, with the rest returning to you.
  2. You sign the transaction and pass it to the bartender, who serves your first drink.
  3. For your succeeding drinks, you recreate the same transaction, adding the price of the new drink to the sum that goes to the bartender and reducing the money returned to you. You sign the transaction and give it to the bartender, who serves you your next drink.
  4. At the end:
    • If the bar closing time is reached, the bartender signs the latest transaction, completing the needed 2-of-2 signatures and broadcasting this to the Bitcoin network. Since the backoff transaction is the closing time + 1, it can't get used at closing time.
    • If you decide you want to leave early because your liver is crying, you just tell the bartender to go ahead and close the channel (which the bartender can do at any time by just signing and broadcasting the latest transaction: the bartender won't do that because he or she is hoping you'll stay and drink more).
    • If you ended up just hanging around the bar and never ordering, then at closing time + 1 you broadcast the backoff transaction and get your funds back in full.
Now, even if you pass 50 drinks to Jihan Wu, you can't give him the first transaction (the one which pays for only one drink) and ask him to mine it: it's spending a 2-of-2 and the copy you have only contains your own signature. You need the bartender's signature to make it valid, but he or she sure as hell isn't going to cooperate in something that would lose him or her money, so a signature from the bartender validating old state where he or she gets paid less isn't going to happen.
So, problem solved, right? Right? Okay, let's try it. So you get your funds, put them in a funding tx, get the backoff tx, confirm the funding tx...
Once the funding transaction confirms deeply, the bartender laughs uproariously. He or she summons the bouncers, who surround you menacingly.
"I'm refusing service to you," the bartender says.
"Fine," you say. "I was leaving anyway;" You smirk. "I'll get back my money with the backoff transaction, and posting about your poor service on reddit so you get negative karma, so there!"
"Not so fast," the bartender says. His or her voice chills your bones. It looks like your exploitation of the Satoshi nSequence payment channel is still fresh in his or her mind. "Look at the txid of the funding transaction that got confirmed."
"What about it?" you ask nonchalantly, as you flip open your desktop computer and open a reputable blockchain explorer.
What you see shocks you.
"What the --- the txid is different! You--- you changed my signature?? But how? I put the only copy of my private key in a sealed envelope in a cast-iron box inside a safe buried in the Gobi desert protected by a clan of nomads who have dedicated their lives and their childrens' lives to keeping my private key safe in perpetuity!"
"Didn't you know?" the bartender asks. "The components of the signature are just very large numbers. The sign of one of the signature components can be changed, from positive to negative, or negative to positive, and the signature will remain valid. Anyone can do that, even if they don't know the private key. But because Bitcoin includes the signatures in the transaction when it's generating the txid, this little change also changes the txid." He or she chuckles. "They say they'll fix it by separating the signatures from the transaction body. They're saying that these kinds of signature malleability won't affect transaction ids anymore after they do this, but I bet I can get my good friend Jihan Wu to delay this 'SepSig' plan for a good while yet. Friendly guy, this Jihan Wu, it turns out all I had to do was slip him 51 drinks and he was willing to mine a tx with the signature signs flipped." His or her grin widens. "I'm afraid your backoff transaction won't work anymore, since it spends a txid that is not existent and will never be confirmed. So here's the deal. You pay me 99% of the funds in the funding transaction, in exchange for me signing the transaction that spends with the txid that you see onchain. Refuse, and you lose 100% of the funds and every other HODLer, including me, benefits from the reduction in coin supply. Accept, and you get to keep 1%. I lose nothing if you refuse, so I won't care if you do, but consider the difference of getting zilch vs. getting 1% of your funds." His or her eyes glow. "GENUFLECT RIGHT NOW."
Lesson learned?

CLTV-protected Spilman Channels

Using CLTV for the backoff branch.
This variation is simply Spilman channels, but with the backoff transaction replaced with a backoff branch in the SCRIPT you pay to. It only became possible after OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY (CLTV) was enabled in 2015.
Now as we saw in the Spilman Channels discussion, transaction malleability means that any pre-signed offchain transaction can easily be invalidated by flipping the sign of the signature of the funding transaction while the funding transaction is not yet confirmed.
This can be avoided by simply putting any special requirements into an explicit branch of the Bitcoin SCRIPT. Now, the backoff branch is supposed to create a maximum lifetime for the payment channel, and prior to the introduction of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY this could only be done by having a pre-signed nLockTime transaction.
With CLTV, however, we can now make the branches explicit in the SCRIPT that the funding transaction pays to.
Instead of paying to a 2-of-2 in order to set up the funding transaction, you pay to a SCRIPT which is basically "2-of-2, OR this singlesig after a specified lock time".
With this, there is no backoff transaction that is pre-signed and which refers to a specific txid. Instead, you can create the backoff transaction later, using whatever txid the funding transaction ends up being confirmed under. Since the funding transaction is immutable once confirmed, it is no longer possible to change the txid afterwards.

Todd Micropayment Networks

The old hub-spoke model (that isn't how LN today actually works).
One of the more direct predecessors of the Lightning Network was the hub-spoke model discussed by Peter Todd. In this model, instead of payers directly having channels to payees, payers and payees connect to a central hub server. This allows any payer to pay any payee, using the same channel for every payee on the hub. Similarly, this allows any payee to receive from any payer, using the same channel.
Remember from the above Spilman example? When you open a channel to the bartender, you have to wait around for the funding tx to confirm. This will take an hour at best. Now consider that you have to make channels for everyone you want to pay to. That's not very scalable.
So the Todd hub-spoke model has a central "clearing house" that transport money from payers to payees. The "Moonbeam" project takes this model. Of course, this reveals to the hub who the payer and payee are, and thus the hub can potentially censor transactions. Generally, though, it was considered that a hub would more efficiently censor by just not maintaining a channel with the payer or payee that it wants to censor (since the money it owned in the channel would just be locked uselessly if the hub won't process payments to/from the censored user).
In any case, the ability of the central hub to monitor payments means that it can surveill the payer and payee, and then sell this private transactional data to third parties. This loss of privacy would be intolerable today.
Peter Todd also proposed that there might be multiple hubs that could transport funds to each other on behalf of their users, providing somewhat better privacy.
Another point of note is that at the time such networks were proposed, only unidirectional (Spilman) channels were available. Thus, while one could be a payer, or payee, you would have to use separate channels for your income versus for your spending. Worse, if you wanted to transfer money from your income channel to your spending channel, you had to close both and reshuffle the money between them, both onchain activities.

Poon-Dryja Lightning Network

Bidirectional two-participant channels.
The Poon-Dryja channel mechanism has two important properties:
Both the original Satoshi and the two Spilman variants are unidirectional: there is a payer and a payee, and if the payee wants to do a refund, or wants to pay for a different service or product the payer is providing, then they can't use the same unidirectional channel.
The Poon-Dryjam mechanism allows channels, however, to be bidirectional instead: you are not a payer or a payee on the channel, you can receive or send at any time as long as both you and the channel counterparty are online.
Further, unlike either of the Spilman variants, there is no time limit for the lifetime of a channel. Instead, you can keep the channel open for as long as you want.
Both properties, together, form a very powerful scaling property that I believe most people have not appreciated. With unidirectional channels, as mentioned before, if you both earn and spend over the same network of payment channels, you would have separate channels for earning and spending. You would then need to perform onchain operations to "reverse" the directions of your channels periodically. Secondly, since Spilman channels have a fixed lifetime, even if you never used either channel, you would have to periodically "refresh" it by closing it and reopening.
With bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels, you may instead open some channels when you first begin managing your own money, then close them only after your lawyers have executed your last will and testament on how the money in your channels get divided up to your heirs: that's just two onchain transactions in your entire lifetime. That is the potentially very powerful scaling property that bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels allow.
I won't discuss the transaction structure needed for Poon-Dryja bidirectional channels --- it's complicated and you can easily get explanations with cute graphics elsewhere.
There is a weakness of Poon-Dryja that people tend to gloss over (because it was fixed very well by RustyReddit):
Another thing I want to emphasize is that while the Lightning Network paper and many of the earlier presentations developed from the old Peter Todd hub-and-spoke model, the modern Lightning Network takes the logical conclusion of removing a strict separation between "hubs" and "spokes". Any node on the Lightning Network can very well work as a hub for any other node. Thus, while you might operate as "mostly a payer", "mostly a forwarding node", "mostly a payee", you still end up being at least partially a forwarding node ("hub") on the network, at least part of the time. This greatly reduces the problems of privacy inherent in having only a few hub nodes: forwarding nodes cannot get significantly useful data from the payments passing through them, because the distance between the payer and the payee can be so large that it would be likely that the ultimate payer and the ultimate payee could be anyone on the Lightning Network.
Lessons learned?

Future

After LN, there's also the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels (DMC). This post is long enough as-is, LOL. But for now, it uses a novel "decrementing nSequence channel", using the new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence (not the broken one originally by Satoshi). It actually uses multiple such "decrementing nSequence" constructs, terminating in a pair of Spilman channels, one in both directions (thus "duplex"). Maybe I'll discuss it some other time.
The realization that channel constructions could actually hold more channel constructions inside them (the way the Decker-Wattenhofer puts a pair of Spilman channels inside a series of "decrementing nSequence channels") lead to the further thought behind Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer channel factories. Basically, you could host multiple two-participant channel constructs inside a larger multiparticipant "channel" construct (i.e. host multiple channels inside a factory).
Further, we have the Decker-Russell-Osuntokun or "eltoo" construction. I'd argue that this is "nSequence done right". I'll write more about this later, because this post is long enough.
Lessons learned?
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