Bitcoin (BTC) Primary Function is “F*ck You Money

Jameson Lopp discusses Bitcoin adoption as analysts predict 2020 bull run (current BTC/USD price is $7,280.96)

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Jameson Lopp discusses Bitcoin adoption as analysts predict 2020 bull run
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[Part - 18] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. Financial Accounting for MBAs,7th Edition by Wild.pdf
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  5. Emerging 4th Edition- Barclay Barrios.azw3
  6. Everything';s an Argument with Readings 8th.azw3
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  10. Laura A. King - Experience Psychology-McGraw-Hill Education (2018).pdf
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  31. Computer Systems_ A Programmer' - Randal E. Bryant.epub
  32. Randal E. Bryant, David R. O'Hallaron - Computer Systems_ A Programmer's Perspective-Pearson (2015).pdf
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  36. Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation, Second Edition- Reed, Pamela G., PhD, RN, FAAN.azw3
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  40. Rules of Contract Law_ 2019-2020 (Supplements).pdf
  41. Aspen Handbook for Legal Writers A Practical Reference 4e.pdf
  42. Aspen Handbook for Legal Writer - Deborah E. Bouchoux.azw3
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  44. Animal Diversity 8e- Cleveland Hickman Jr_.pdf
  45. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart From the Beginnings of Humankind to the Present- Alan Karras.pdf
  46. Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, Charlotte W. Pratt - Fundamentals of Biochemistry_ Life at the Molecular Level-Wiley (2016).pdf
  47. Ricky W. Griffin - Fundamentals of Management-Cengage Learning (2016).pdf
  48. The I in Team Sports Fandom and the Reproduction of Identity - Erin C. Tarver.pdf
  49. The I in Team Sports Fandom and the Reproduction of Identity - Erin C. Tarver.azw3
  50. The Heritage Black Athletes, a Divided America, and the Politics of Patriotism - Howard Bryant.pdf
  51. The Heritage Black Athletes, a Divided America, and the Politics of Patriotism - Howard Bryant.azw3
  52. More Than Just a Game .pdf
  53. The Meaning of Sports.pdf
  54. Steve Chapman, Tony K. Arnold, Ann K. Gatewood, Lloyd Clive - Introduction to Materials Management-Pearson (2016).pdf
  55. Vicki L. Ruiz - From Out of the Shadows_ Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America-Oxford University Press (2008).pdf
  56. Statistics The Art and Science of Learning from Data 4th Edition by Alan Agresti.pdf
  57. Creative Strategy in Advertising 11th Edition by Bonnie L. Drewniany.pdf
  58. On Course Strategies for Creating Success in College, Career, and Life 9th - Skip Downing.pdf
  59. Family Business 4th by Ernesto J. Poza- Ernesto J.pdf
  60. (Schaum’s Outlines) Conrad Schmitt - Schaum’s Outline of Spanish Grammar-McGraw-Hill Education (2013).pdf
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  62. College Algebra MindTap Course List 12th Edition- R. David Gustafson.pdf
  63. The Brief American Pageant A History of the Republic 9th Edition - David M. Kennedy.pdf
  64. Financial Accounting, 10th Edit - Jerry J. Weygandt.pdf
  65. Ann R. Cannon - Stat2-W. H. Freeman.pdf
  66. James W. Kalat - Introduction to Psychology-Cengage Learning (2016).pdf
  67. American Government and Politics Today The Essentials, Enhanced 19th Edition.pdf
  68. Roger Fisher, William L. Ury, Bruce Patton - Getting to Yes_ Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In -Penguin (Non-Classics) (1991)-1-20.pdf
  69. Operations Management Sustainability and Supply Chain Management 2nd Canadian Edition.pdf
  70. Managing Risk in Information Systems (Information Systems Security & Assurance) 2nd- Darril Gibson.pdf
  71. Managing Risk in Information Systems (Information Systems Security & Assurance) 2nd- Darril Gibson.azw3
  72. Lynn S. Bickley - Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking-LWW (2016).pdf
  73. Thomas Anderson, Michael Dahlin - Operating Systems_ Principles and Practice, Vol. 4_ Persistent Storage-Recursive Books (2015).epub
  74. Thomas Anderson, Michael Dahlin - Operating Systems_ Principles and Practice, Vol. 3_ Memory Management-Recursive Books (2015).epub
  75. The Human Tradition in California by Davis and Igler.pdf
  76. The Elusive Eden A New History of California - Richard B. Rice.pdf
  77. Neil A. Campbell, Jane B. Reece - Biology 8ed.pdf
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  79. College-Trigonometry-Sixth-Edition.pdf
  80. Introduction-to-Computing-Systems-From-bits-and-gates-to-C-and-beyond.pdf
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  83. Thomas Anderson, Michael Dahlin - Operating Systems_ Principles and Practice, Vol. 1_ Kernels and Processes-Recursive Books (2015).epub
  84. Principles of Marketing 17th Edition Philip T. Kotler.pdf
  85. Managing and Using Information - Keri E. Pearlson.pdf
  86. Thomas Anderson, Michael Dahlin - Operating Systems_ Principles and Practice, Vol. 2_ Concurrency. 3-Recursive Books (2015).epub
  87. Experiencing MIS, Fourth 4th Canadian Edition.pdf
  88. GRE Prep Plus 2019 Practice Tests + Proven Strategies + Online + Video + Mobile .pdf
  89. GRE Prep Plus 2019_ Practice Te - Kaplan Test Prep.azw3
  90. Nutrition for Health and Healthcare, 6th Edition.pdf
  91. American Soldiers in Iraq_ McSo - Morten G. Ender.pdf
  92. American Soldiers in Iraq_ McSo - Morten G. Ender.azw
  93. Chemistry The Central Science (13th Edition).pdf
  94. Strategic Human Resource Management Gaining a Competitive Advantage 2nd Canadian Edition.pdf
  95. PR Style Guide (2012 3rd Edition).pdf
  96. Exploring Philosophy An Introductory Anthology 6th Edition.pdf
  97. International Business Law and Its Environment 10th Edition by Richard Schaffer.pdf
  98. Stephen T. Thornton, Andrew Rex - Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers-Brooks Cole (2012).pdf
  99. John R. Taylor - Classical Mechanics-University Science Books (2005).pdf
  100. Engineering Your Future An Australasian Guide, 3e.pdf
  101. Doing Philosophy An Introduction Through Thought Experiments - Theodore Schick.azw3
  102. Doing Philosophy An Introduction Through Thought Experiments - Theodore Schick.pdf
  103. Theoretical Perspectives for Direct Social Work Practice, Third Edition 3th.pdf
  104. Java How to Program, Early Objects 11th Edition by Paul J. Deitel .pdf
  105. Physics: An Algebra-Based Approach by Alan Hirsch.pdf
  106. Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice 5th Edition by Terry Mahan.pdf
  107. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 20th Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2) by J. Larry Jameson , Anthony S. Fauci .pdf
  108. College Physics: Reasoning and Relationships 2nd Edition by Nicholas Giordano .pdf
  109. Fundamentals of Microbiology 11th Edition by Jeffrey Pommerville .pdf
  110. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management 12th Edition by Carlos Coronel .pdf
  111. Wireless and Mobile Device Security 1st Edition by Jim Doherty .pdf
  112. A Practical Guide to Software Licensing for Licensees and Licensors 6th Edition by H. Ward Classen.pdf
  113. Programmed Learning Approach to Medical Terminology 3rd Edition by Judi Nath.pdf
  114. Rootkits and Bootkits: Reversing Modern Malware and Next Generation Threats by Alex Matrosov.pdf
  115. Starting Out With C++: Early Objects 9th Edition by Tony Gaddis.pdf
  116. Murach's C++ Programming by Joel Murach.pdf
  117. Mental Health in Social Work: A Casebook on Diagnosis and Strengths Based Assessment (DSM 5 Update) 2nd Edition by Jacqueline Corcoran.pdf
  118. Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institutions, and Issues 12th Edition by Thomas M. Magstadt.pdf
  119. The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets,12th Edition by Frederic S. Mishkin.pdf
  120. Macroeconomics 10th Edition by N. Gregory Mankiw.pdf
  121. The Matrix of Race Social Construction, Intersectionality, and Inequality - Rodney D. Coates.mobi
  122. The Matrix of Race Social Construction, Intersectionality, and Inequality - Rodney D. Coates.pdf
  123. Garry L. Landreth - Play Therapy_ The Art of the Relationship, vol 2-Routledge (2012).pdf
  124. Drafting Agreements for the Digital Media Industry 2nd Edition.pdf
  125. Willard and Spackman's Occupational Therapy 13th Edition - Barbara Schell.azw3
  126. Willard and Spackman's Occupational Therapy 13th Edition.pdf
  127. Entrepreneurial Finance 6th Edition by J. Chris Leach.pdf
  128. Financial Accounting 5th Edition by Dyckman,Hanlon,Magee,Pfeiffer.pdf
  129. Managerial Economics and Strategy 2nd Edition by Jeffrey M. Perloff.pdf
  130. Intermediate Algebra For College Students, 10th Edition.pdf
  131. Aerosol Technology Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles 2e.pdf
  132. Financial & Managerial Accounting 18th Edition by Jan Williams.pdf
  133. Accounting for Decision Making and Control 9th Edition by Jerold Zim.pdf
  134. Elements of Argument 12th Edition - Annette Rottenberg.azw3
  135. Elements of Argument 12th Edition - Annette Rottenberg.pdf
  136. Organic Chemistry 12th Edition by T. W. Graham Solomons (1).pdf
  137. David Cohen, Theodore B. Lee, David Sklar - Precalculus, 7th Edition -Cengage Learning (2011).pdf
  138. Comparative Health Systems A Global Perspective.pdf
  139. Genetics Analysis of Genes and Genomes 9th Edition by Daniel L. Hartl.azw3
  140. Genetics Analysis of Genes and Genomes 9th Edition by Daniel L. Hartl.pdf
  141. Computer Science Illuminated 7th Edition.pdf
  142. Physics 11 Cutnell SM.zip
  143. (Deitel_ How to Program) Paul J. Deitel, Harvey Deitel - Java How to Program, Early Objects-Pearson (2017).epub
  144. Kenneth J. Guest - Essentials of Cultural Anthropology_ A Toolkit for a Global Age-W. W. Norton & Company (2017).pdf
  145. David Ryan, Wayne Archer - Real Estate Principles_ A Value Approach (2017).pdf
  146. Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John M. Vlissides - Design Patterns_ Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software -Addison-Wesley Professional (1994).pdf
  147. Race in America - Matthew Desmond.pdf
  148. Microbiology, 2nd Edition - Dave Wessner.pdf
  149. College Physics Explore and Apply 2nd Edition by Eugenia Etkina.epub
  150. William E. Prentice - Principles of Athletic Training_ A Guide to Evidence-Based Clinical Practice (2016, McGraw-Hill Education).pdf
  151. College Physics Explore and Apply 2nd Edition by Eugenia Etkina.pdf
  152. Precalculus Graphs and Models 6th Edition - Marvin L. Bittinger.pdf
  153. Ethan F. Becker, Jon Wortmann - Mastering Communication at Work_ How to Lead, Manage, and Influence (2009).pdf
  154. Sharon B Buchbinder, Nancy H Shanks - Introduction to Health Care Management-Jones & Bartlett Learning (2016).epub
  155. gender_in_the_workplace_a_case.epub
  156. Trigonometry 4th Edition - Mark Dugopolski.pdf
  157. Best STEM Resources for NextGen Scientists The Essential Selecti.pdf
  158. Nancy J. Adler, Allison Gundersen - International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior-Cengage Learning (2007).pdf
  159. Peter G. Northouse - Leadership_ Theory and Practice-SAGE (2016).pdf
  160. Horngren';s Cost Accounting A Managerial Emphasis 16E - Datar - SM.zip
  161. STEM Programming for All Ages.pdf
  162. How to STEM Science Technology Engineering and Math.pdf
  163. Practices of Looking An Introduction to Visual Culture 3rd Edition.pdf
  164. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version, 13th Edition.pdf
  165. Strategic Management Theory & Cases An Integrated Approach 12th Edition by Charles W. L. Hill & Melissa.pdf
  166. Public Administration: Concepts and Cases 9th edition.pdf
  167. Transcultural Nursing - E-Book Assessment and Intervention 7th Edition, - Joyce Newman Giger.pdf
  168. College Algebra Concepts Through Functions 3rd Edition- Michael Sullivan III.pdf
  169. Medical Aspects of Disability for the Rehabilitation Professiona.pdf
  170. Capital Markets Institutions, Instruments, and Risk Management, 5th Edition.pdf
  171. Writing Matters: A Handbook for Writing and Research 3rd edition.pdf
  172. The McGraw-Hill Reader: Issues Across the Disciplines 12th Edition.pdf
  173. Earth Portrait of a Planet (Sixth Edition) 6th.pdf
  174. Business Law Today, The Essentials 11th Edition by Roger LeRoy Miller.pdf
  175. Maryland Evidence Courtroom Manual - Andrew D. Levy.pdf
  176. Maryland Evidence Courtroom Manual - Andrew D. Levy.azw3
  177. Bonnie Kime Scott (Editor), Susan E. Cayleff (Editor), Anne Donadey (Editor), Irene Lara (Editor) - Women in Culture_ An Intersectional Anthology for Gender and Women’s Studies-Wiley-Blackwell (2016).pdf
  178. Christine A. Price, Kevin R. Bush, Sharon J. Price (eds.) - Families & Change_ Coping With Stressful Events and Transitions-SAGE Publications, Inc (2016).pdf
  179. Traditions & Encounters Volume 1 From the Beginning to 1500, 6th Edition by Jerry Bentley.pdf
  180. Strategies and Tactics for the - Steven Emanuel.azw3
  181. Strategiesand_Tactics_for_the-_Steven_Emanuel.pdf
  182. An Introduction to Visual Communication From Cave Art to Second Life- Susan B. Barnes.azw3
  183. An Introduction to Visual Communication From Cave Art to Second Life- Susan B. Barnes.pdf
  184. Understanding Psychology 13e - Robert Feldman.pdf
  185. Western Civilizations_ Their Hi - Joshua Cole.pdf
  186. Western Civilizations_ Their Hi - Joshua Cole.epub
  187. The Marriage and Family Experience Intimate Relationships in a Changing Society 13th.pdf
  188. Psychology in Everyday Life 4th Edition by David G. Myers.pdf
  189. Microeconomics 7th - R. Glenn Hubbard(1).pdf
  190. Human Sexuality Diversity in Contemporary America 9th Edition by Yarber.pdf
  191. Keeping the Republic Power and Citizenship in American Politics 7th Edition.pdf
  192. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, 5th Fifth Canadian - Nancy Langton.pdf
  193. Principles and Practice of Sport Management - Lisa P. Masteralexis & Carol A. Barr & Mary Hums.pdf
  194. Principles and Practice of Sport Management - Lisa P. Masteralexis & Carol A. Barr & Mary Hums.mobi
  195. Managing the Successful School Library.pdf
  196. American Government Institutions and Policies Essentials 15th Edition.pdf
  197. Operations Management Sustainability and Supply Chain Management 12e by Jay Heizer -SM.zip
  198. Operations Management Sustainability and Supply Chain Management 12th Edition 12E - Heizer - TB.zip
  199. Introduction to Information Systems, 7E - Rainer - TB.zip
  200. Criminal Procedure Investigation (Aspen Casebook Series) 3rd Edition- Erwin Chemerinsky.pdf
  201. Criminal Procedure Investigation (Aspen Casebook Series) 3rd Edition- Erwin Chemerinsky.azw3
  202. Your Health Today Choices in a Changing Society 6e Michael Teague.pdf
  203. Unidos Classroom Manual An Interactive Approach 2nd Edition.pdf
  204. Technology and Society Social Networks, Power, and Inequality.pdf
  205. Using Sage 50 Accounting 2017, - Mary Purbhoo (1).pdf
  206. (Test Bank)Management Information Systems Managing the Digital Firm 15th Edition.zip
  207. Stuart Reges_ Marty Stepp - Building Java Programs_ A Back to Basics Approach-Pearson (2016).pdf
  208. Avinash K. Dixit, Susan Skeath, David H. Reiley Jr. - Games of Strategy-W. W. Norton & Co. (2014).pdf
  209. Management Information Systems Managing the Digital Firm 15th Edition.pdf
  210. Development Across the Life Spa - Robert S Feldman.pdf
  211. Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon - Management Information Systems_ Managing the Digital Firm-Pearson (2017).pdf
  212. Accounting Principles, Volume 1 Canadian 7th edition - 7E - CDN - Weygandt - SM.zip
  213. thecustomer_support_handbook.epub
  214. standard_cataloging_for_school.pdf
  215. Accounting Principles, 7th Canadian Edition Volume 1 原版PDF.pdf
  216. Strategic Management Creating Competitive Advantages 9th Edition.pdf
  217. Managerial Accounting Creating Value in a Dynamic Business Environment 11th Edition.pdf
  218. Modern Maryland Civil Procedure, Third Edition- Richard W. Bourne.pdf
  219. Modern Maryland Civil Procedure, Third Edition- Richard W. Bourne.azw3
  220. Fundamental Accounting Principles 24th Edition - John Wild.pdf
  221. Excellence in Business Communication 5th Canadian Edition by John V. Thill.pdf
  222. (Solution Manual)Elementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems, 6th Edition.zip
  223. A Gift of Fire - Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing Technology, Fifth Edition.pdf
  224. Maryland Evidence Handbook 4.pdf
  225. Strategic Management Text and Cases 9th Edition.pdf
  226. Business Communication Process and Product 6th Brief Canadi by Mary Ellen Guffey.pdf
  227. Intro to Azure SQL.mp4
  228. Precalculus 10th Edition by Michael Sullivan.pdf
  229. Introduction to Biosocial Medic - Donald A. Barr MD PhD_.pdf
  230. introduction_to_biosocial_medi.azw
  231. (Test Bank)Essentials of Accounting for Governmental and Not-for-Profit Organizations 13th Edition.zip
  232. (Solution Manual)Essentials of Accounting for Governmental and Not-for-Profit Organizations 13th Edition (1).zip
  233. Essentials of Accounting for Governmental and Not-for-Profit Organizations 13th Edition.pdf
  234. Responsible Business The Textbook for Management Learning, Competence and Innovation .pdf
  235. Jane Holcombe, Charles Holcombe - Survey of Operating Systems-McGraw-Hill (2016).pdf
  236. (Test Bank)Horngren';s Cost Accounting A Managerial Emphasis, 16th Edition.zip
  237. (Test Bank)Auditing and Assurance Services 16th Edition.zip
  238. Roger Best - Market-Based Management-Pearson (2012).pdf
  239. Cyberethics Morality and Law in Cyberspace 6th Edition.pdf
  240. (Professional Computing) Kevin R. Fall, W. Richard Stevens - TCPIP Illustrated, Volume 1 The Protocols-Addison-Wesley Professional (2011).pdf
  241. Jerry FitzGerald and Alan Dennis - Business Data Communications and Networking.pdf
  242. Sara Baase - A Gift of Fire_ Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing Technology-Prentice Hall (2012).pdf
  243. Microeconomics Australia in the Global Environment 1e 课本.pdf
  244. The Norton Anthology of American Literature Ninth Edition Vol. Package 1 Volumes A and B) 9th Edition.pdf
  245. Starting out with Visual Basic 7th Edition.pdf
  246. Chemistry A Molecular Approach 4th Edition by Nivaldo J. Tro.pdf
  247. Correctional Counseling and Rehabilitation.pdf
  248. Trial Techniques and Trials (Aspen Coursebook Series) 10th Edition.pdf
  249. 4374. An Introduction to Conservation Biology, 1st Edition_ Richard B. Primack & Anna Sher.pdf
  250. Work - Lars Fredrik Svendsen.pdf
  251. Work - Lars Fredrik Svendsen.azw
  252. Andrea A. Lunsford,John J. Ruszkiewicz,Keith Walters - Everything’s an Argument with Readings-Bedford_St. Martin’s (2016).pdf
  253. Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz - Theories of Personality-Cengage Learning (2012).pdf
  254. Benjamin Ginsberg, Theodore J. Lowi, Margaret Weir, Caroline J. Tolbert - We the People_ An Introduction To American Politics-W. W. Norton & Company (2014).pdf
  255. Michael J. F. Barresi, Scott F. Gilbert - Developmental biology-Sinauer Associates (2018).pdf
  256. Scott F. Gilbert - Developmental Biology (9th Edition) -Sinauer Associates (2010).pdf
  257. Medical Terminology for Health Professions 8th edition .pdf
  258. Scott F. Gilbert - Developmental Biology, 9th Edition -Sinauer Associates, Inc. (2010).pdf
  259. Wardlaw's Contemporary Nutrition A Functional Approach, 5th Edition.pdf
  260. FYSOS_ Input and Output Devices (FYSOS_ Operating System Design Book 4) - Benjamin Lunt.pdf
  261. FYSOS_ Input and Output Devices (FYSOS_ Operating System Design Book 4) - Benjamin Lunt.azw4
  262. FYSOS_ The Graphical User Interface (FYSOS_ Operating System Design Book 6) - Benjamin Lunt.pdf
  263. FYSOS_ The Graphical User Interface (FYSOS_ Operating System Design Book 6) - Benjamin Lunt.azw4
  264. The Sociology Project 2.0 Introducing the Sociological Imagination.pdf
  265. Human Growth and Development Across the Lifespan Applications for Counselors - Mark D. Stauffer.azw3
  266. Human Growth and Development Across the Lifespan Applications for Counselors - Mark D. Stauffer.pdf
  267. Adventures in Social Research Data Analysis Using 10th.pdf
  268. Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination 2nd Edition by GEORGE YOUNG .pdf
  269. Media Ethics Cases and Moral Reasoning by Clifford G. Christians.pdf
  270. Survey of Economics_ Principles - Arthur O'Sullivan.pdf
  271. Drug Use and Abuse 8th Edition - Stephen A. Maisto.pdf
  272. Child, Family, and Community Family-Centered Early Care 7th Edition by Janet Gonzalez-Mena.pdf
  273. Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions.pdf
  274. (Solution Manual)Intermediate Accounting 16th Edition by Kieso (1).rar
  275. (Test Bank)Intermediate Accounting 16th Edition by Kieso.zip
  276. Philip J Pritchard, John W Mitchell - Fox and McDonald’s Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (0, Wiley).pdf
  277. Principles of Microeconomics (11th Edition) by Karl E. Case.pdf
  278. Howard Anton, Chris Rorres - Elementary Linear Algebra, Applications Version-Wiley (2013).pdf
  279. Life Span Development_ A Topica - Robert S Feldman.pdf
  280. Introduction to Geography 15e (WCB - Arthur Getis.pdf
  281. Fundamentals of Web Development 2nd Edition.epub
  282. Fundamentals of Web Development 2nd Edition.pdf
  283. Darrell Ebbing, Steven D. Gammon - General Chemistry-Brooks Cole (2016).pdf
  284. How to Think Straight About Psychology, 11th Edition_9780134482125.pdf
  285. Andy Field - Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics-SAGE Publications (2013).pdf
  286. Andy Field - Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics-SAGE Publ. (2017).epub
  287. Andy Field - Discovering Statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics-SAGE Publications Ltd (2013).epub
  288. Management 3rd Canadian Edition by John R. Schermerhorn.pdf
  289. Uneven Roads_ An Introduction to U.S. Racial and Ethnic Politics.pdf
  290. Uneven Roads An Introduction to U.S. Racial and Ethnic Politics - Todd Shaw.azw3
  291. Macroeconomics Principles Applications and tools 9th Edition by Arthur O'Sullivan (1).pdf
  292. Microbiology an introduction 13th.pdf
  293. Research Design in Clinical Psy - Alan E. Kazdin.pdf
  294. Renee R. Taylor - The Intentional Relationship_ Occupational Therapy and Use of Self (2008).pdf
  295. Human Sexuality in a Changing World 10th Edition by Spencer A. Rathus, Jeff Nevid, Lois Fichner-Rathu.pdf
  296. Modern Management: Concepts and Skills 14th Edition by Samuel C. Certo, S. Trevis Certo.pdf
  297. Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment 6th Edition by American Medical Association, Robert Rondinelli.pdf
  298. Java Programming 9th Edition by Joyce Farrell.pdf
  299. Financial & Managerial Accounting 16th Edition by Jan Williams, Susan Haka, Mark Bettner, Joseph Carcello.pdf
submitted by TailExpert to CollegeTextbook [link] [comments]

Critque of Roger Ver vs. Tone Vays debate.

  1. With respect to the price of bitcoin transactions. Roger Ver is lying here. You can go and see what the average fee is and the average fee hasn't come close to 3 dollars. Where he might get this is from his wallet which purposefully has high fees. That's programming he put in and is not reflective of the real world use of Bitcoin. Tone's assessment of the fees is actually accurate.
  2. Bitcoin Cash is not secure. It doesn't have the proper hashrate and since it uses the same algorithm as Bitcoin a far larger network it's inherently vulnerable to 51 % attacks. It recently just went through a reorg carried out by 2 of the large mining pools on Bitcoin Cash. Bitcoin Cash proponents claim that unconfirmed transactions are safe. Satoshi never believed unconfirmed transactions were safe for a number of reasons. Despite numerous double spends being executed on the network the proponents continue to make this lie. lightning transactions are cheaper than bitcoin cash. Lightning is suitable for micro transactions (actually less than a satoshi) and they are secure. 99% as secure as bitcoin transactions since it is the Bitcoin blockchain that is behind them. The only issue would be some kind of issue where you couldn't be on the network for an extended period of time and you're connected to a node that tries to steal from you. This will be resolved in the future (also thanks to segwit).
  3. You're really only in complete control of your own money if you run a full node. SPV wallets are great, but you're trusting other nodes. The Eclair wallet is similar to an SPV wallet (uses that same technology) but it is more secure. On Chain SPV wallets you are trusting nodes every transaction. With a SPV/Lightning wallet like Eclair you're only trusting it for 2 transactions per channel and from there you can have many secure transactions. You can also run a full node lightning network as well. It's slightly more cumbersome. Setting up a full node lightning wallet takes 2 times as long as setting up a full node bitcoin wallet because of the extra indexing that is required. It takes roughly the same amount of time to setup a full node bitcoin wallet as it does to do a full node bitcoin cash wallet. Roger isn't comparing apples to apples here. You're not in full control of your money with an SPV wallet using Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash, but it's a fine solution for most people doing day to day transactions.
Roger always tries to setup his debates in order to win. He typically has easy opponents. The Bitcoin vs Bitcoin Cash debate comes down to the technicals. If you believe in money owned by the people then look at the technicals you will see that Bitcoin Cash does not provide this as an option. The one time Roger had a debate with a technical person he was dominated it was on the Tom Woods show with Jameson Lopp I believe. Roger's political level debates (where logical fallacies are quite effective) works well because he keeps it about economics "bribing" the people with promises of fast/cheap transactions when in reality he uses half truths to make these claims.
There is a lot of money behind the disinformation marketing campaign behind Bitcoin Cash. As evidence I reference the Bitcoin.com wallet which purposefully uses insane fees for Bitcoin to slander Bitcoin.
Don't trust me. Look at the fundamentals of Bitcoin and Blockchains in general and you'll see Bitcoin has a great path and excellent development behind it.
submitted by lizard450 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

⚡ Lightning Network Megathread ⚡

Last updated 2018-01-29
This post is a collaboration with the Bitcoin community to create a one-stop source for Lightning Network information.
There are still questions in the FAQ that are unanswered, if you know the answer and can provide a source please do so!

⚡What is the Lightning Network? ⚡

Explanations:

Image Explanations:

Specifications / White Papers

Videos

Lightning Network Experts on Reddit

  • starkbot - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • cfromknecht - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • RustyReddit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • cdecker - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • Dryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • josephpoon - (Joseph Poon)
  • fdrn - (Fabrice Drouin - ACINQ )
  • pmpadiou - (Pierre-Marie Padiou - ACINQ)

Lightning Network Experts on Twitter

  • @starkness - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • @roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • @stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • @bitconner - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • @johanth - (Johan Halseth - Lightning Labs)
  • @bvu - (Bryan Vu - Lightning Labs)
  • @rusty_twit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • @snyke - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • @JackMallers - (Jack Mallers - Zap)
  • @tdryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • @jcp - (Joseph Poon)
  • @alexbosworth - (Alex Bosworth - yalls.org)

Medium Posts

Learning Resources

Books

Desktop Interfaces

Web Interfaces

Tutorials and resources

Lightning on Testnet

Lightning Wallets

Place a testnet transaction

Altcoin Trading using Lightning

  • ZigZag - Disclaimer You must trust ZigZag to send to Target Address

Lightning on Mainnet

Warning - Testing should be done on Testnet

Atomic Swaps

Developer Documentation and Resources

Lightning implementations

  • LND - Lightning Network Daemon (Golang)
  • eclair - A Scala implementation of the Lightning Network (Scala)
  • c-lightning - A Lightning Network implementation in C
  • lit - Lightning Network node software (Golang)
  • lightning-onion - Onion Routed Micropayments for the Lightning Network (Golang)
  • lightning-integration - Lightning Integration Testing Framework
  • ptarmigan - C++ BOLT-Compliant Lightning Network Implementation [Incomplete]

Libraries

Lightning Network Visualizers/Explorers

Testnet

Mainnet

Payment Processors

  • BTCPay - Next stable version will include Lightning Network

Community

Slack

IRC

Slack Channel

Discord Channel

Miscellaneous

⚡ Lightning FAQs ⚡

If you can answer please PM me and include source if possible. Feel free to help keep these answers up to date and as brief but correct as possible
Is Lightning Bitcoin?
Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Is the Lightning Network open source?
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Who owns and controls the Lightning Network?
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
I’ve heard that Lightning transactions are happening “off-chain”…Does that mean that my bitcoin will be removed from the blockchain?
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Do I need a constant connection to run a lightning node?
Not necessarily,
Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
What Are Lightning’s Advantages?
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Does Lightning require Segregated Witness?
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
Can I Send Funds From Lightning to a Normal Bitcoin Address?
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Can I Make Money Running a Lightning Node?
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
What is the release date for Lightning on Mainnet?
Lightning is already being tested on the Mainnet Twitter Link but as for a specific date, Jameson Lopp says it best
Would there be any KYC/AML issues with certain nodes?
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
What is the delay time for the recipient of a transaction receiving confirmation?
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
How does the lightning network prevent centralization?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
What are Channel Factories and how do they work?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How does the Lightning network work in simple terms?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How are paths found in Lightning Network?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How would the lightning network work between exchanges?
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges
Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
How do lightning nodes find other lightning nodes?
Stack Exchange Answer
Does every user need to store the state of the complete Lightning Network?
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
Would I need to download the complete state every time I open the App and make a payment?
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
What needs to happen for the Lightning Network to be deployed and what can I do as a user to help?
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above.
All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Is there anyway for someone who isn't a developer to meaningfully contribute?
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
Do I need to be a miner to be a Lightning Network node?
No -- Source
Do I need to run a full Bitcoin node to run a lightning node?
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source
LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
How does the lightning network stop "Cheating" (Someone broadcasting an old transaction)?
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-)
For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
How many times would someone need to open and close their lightning channels?
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user.
Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
Will the lightning network reduce BTC Liquidity due to "locking-up" funds in channels?
Stack Exchange Answer
Can the Lightning Network work on any other cryptocurrency? How?
Stack Exchange Answer
When setting up a Lightning Network Node are fees set for the entire node, or each channel when opened?
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Can Lightning routing fees be changed dynamically, without closing channels?
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
How can you make sure that there will be routes with large enough balances to handle transactions?
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
How does the Lightning Network stop flooding nodes (DDoS) with micro transactions? Is this even an issue?
Stack Exchange Answer

Unanswered Questions

How do on-chain fees work when opening and closing channels? Who pays the fee?
How does the Lightning Network work for mobile users?
What are the best practices for securing a lightning node?
What is a lightning "hub"?
How does lightning handle cross chain (Atomic) swaps?

Special Thanks and Notes

  • Many links found from awesome-lightning-network github
  • Everyone who submitted a question or concern!
  • I'm continuing to format for an easier Mobile experience!
submitted by codedaway to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

r/Bitcoin recap - May 2019

Hi Bitcoiners!
I’m back with the 29th monthly Bitcoin news recap. (sorry a bit late this month)
For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month.
You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com
A recap of Bitcoin in May 2019
Adoption
Development
Security
Mining
Business
Research
Education
Regulation & Politics
Archeology (Financial Incumbents)
Price & Trading
Fun & Other
submitted by SamWouters to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Holding 1 btc is like having a $19.42/hr job with a 12 cent/hr pay raise each day?

Check my math... According to Jameson Lopp in the article linked below, the average daily gain over the past year has been .66% per day. So holding 1btc at $16,878 x .0066 would yield $111.39 per day... that times 7 days gives you $779.76 per week... divided by a 40 hour work week is $19.49 per hour. Of course this theoretically would compound daily... so 19.49/hr x .0066 equals a 12.8 cent raise each day.
Source for average daily gain: https://cointelegraph.com/news/bitcoin-price-will-hit-250000-by-2020-if-seven-year-trend-continues
Edit: average daily gain of .66% has only been for this past year. Using the .0042 7 year average daily gain is like a $12.40 / hour full time job.
submitted by Maxxit to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

r/Bitcoin recap - March 2018

Hi Bitcoiners!
I’m back with the fifteenth monthly Bitcoin news recap.
For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month.
And a lot has happened. It's easy to forget with so much focus on the price. Take a moment and scroll through the list below. You'll find an incredibly eventful month.
You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com
A recap of Bitcoin in March 2018
submitted by SamWouters to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A comprehensive review of miner arguments against issuance reduction

First I wanted to start by saying Hudson Jameson did a phenomenal job wrangling all these different stakeholders to the core devs meeting today and playing the part of an effective, neutral moderator. It was a really interesting meeting and great to hear all viewpoints. I'm sure many of you live streamed it as well.
I’m an Ethereum investor and active user, and I took notes on the most prominent miner arguments against issuance reduction along with my thoughts on each. Would love to hear any thoughts or any ones I may have missed.
GPUs that leave network after issuance reduction can be used to attack Network Security (Xin Xu)
Xin Xu argues that a decline in issuance from 3 to 2 (33%) will cause a drop in hashrate by 33%, and that such a large drop in hashrate will lead to an influx of GPUs on the market that can be used to attack Ethereum. This argument is predicated on the idea that hashrate will drop significantly. However, any drop in hashrate will decrease difficulty so mathematically a 33% drop in issuance should have at most a ~18% impact to total hashrate assuming a linear relationship. I don't believe that a drop in Ethereum Network Hashrate from current levels (280 TH/s) to January 2018 levels (230 TH/s) is a doomsday scenario. And the real drop will certainly be much smaller for two reasons. 1) Historical data shows that hashrate is extremely resilient against drops in price as well as issuance (source: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DlTEyKBV4AERGtB.jpg:large). 2) Historical data also shows that all Ethereum and Bitcoin issuance reductions were followed by price increases which could partially or completely offset the decline in hashrate.
Issuance Reduction will drive a dramatic shift in hardware composition of the network (Brian Venturo)
Brian Venturo argues that a reduction in issuance will price out GPU miners and cause the network to dramatically shift towards ASIC miners in the short term, increasing mining centralization. However, miners on the call pointed out that currently available ASICS (Antminer E3) is in-line with top GPUs in terms of mining efficiency. It’s only when we compare claims from as-yet unreleased ASIC manufacturers (Innosilicon A10) to 2-year old GPU technology (GTX 1080) that we see any risk of an efficiency gap. Second, the total Ethereum network hashrate is 280 TH/s. This is equivalent to 577,000 Innosilicon A10s, which would cost $3.3 Billion (at $5700 each). Any shift of even 10-20% in Ethereum network hardware composition will be slow and steady, and as we heard on the call, miners looking to spend significant capital on new hardware are considering major ROI headwinds from 1) upcoming shift to PoS and 2) possible exploration of new ASIC-resistant algos like ProgPOW. Both of these would brick current generation ASICS while GPUS would retain their resale value. More work needs to be done exploring ASIC-resistant POW algorithms, and there's no reason why issuance-reduction EIPs should be roadblocked in the interim.
EIP 1295 as an alternative (Brian Venturo)
Brian Venturo cites the current rules around Uncle and Nephew rewards as causing weird incentives that miners are exploiting to maximize uncle rate and squeeze higher issuance out of the network. This is a super interesting point, and one that I would love to see explored in more detail (as the downstream implications could be quite complex) in addition to EIP-1234. There’s no reason why 1295 is mutually exclusive with EIP-1234, and positioning it that way is a clever tactic to delay any issuance reduction. Brian himself suggested an issuance reduction in 2019 on top of EIP-1295.
My Final thought
I am in full support of EIP-1234 as a moderate issuance reduction to reduce Ethereum inflation and the amount we are overpaying miners for security. Looking back on it, last year’s 40% reduction from 5 eth/block to 3 eth/block has turned out to be a phenomenally good decision. Since then, hashrates have increased 3x while price has declined 20% (was $330 pre-fork), all while we reduced inflation by 40%. Another modest issuance reduction is a prudent decision that is a natural step in Ethereum’s growth and consistent with the original vision for inflation. In contrast, a difficulty bomb delay without a corresponding issuance reduction should be viewed as an issuance increase.
The quicker we can get this decision behind us, the better. As long as this question looms, investors will lack confidence in Ethereum’s monetary policy, and mining stakeholders will have massive incentive to decrease Ethereum price until Constantinople to increase the chance they can mine at inflated rates through 2019
submitted by AZA214 to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Devcon Shows Ethereum’s ‘World Computer’ Is a Movement, Not a Product

Devcon Shows Ethereum’s ‘World Computer’ Is a Movement, Not a Product


News by Coindesk: Leigh Cuen
If there’s anywhere in the world where it feels right to believe in magic, it’s Devcon 5 in Osaka, Japan.
The ethereum community faces a daunting task: scale its blockchain ecosystem to securely support the growing demand for mainstream use cases. Thousands of technologists and passionate fans gathered at Devcon this week to grapple with the nitty-gritty, in a venue marked by rainbow signage. Among them sat 16-year-old Shawki Sukkar, a self-taught developer from Aleppo, Syria.
“I’m searching wherever I find an opportunity to learn,” Sukkar, one of the 50 scholarship attendees at Devcon, told CoinDesk. “People look smart here. They have a great mindset.”
Since his father’s factory was destroyed in the Syrian civil war, and his friend’s identity documents were lost as well, the unbanked Sukkar has taken a keen interest in ethereum-based identity solutions and financial products.
Beyond Sukkar, several attendees told CoinDesk they came to this developers conference, and other smaller ethereum-centric events worldwide, to learn by contributing.
Along those lines, Mariano Conti, the MakerDAO Foundation’s head of smart contracts, gave a presentation about how he lives in Argentina earning only a cryptocurrency salary. He openly acknowledged the risks of relying on an open-source experiment instead of his national currency deposited in a regulated bank. However, Conti said he trusts the ethereum community more than the Argentine government.
Conti’s statement garnered resounding applause from the audience, including several people who also use cryptocurrency as a survival tool. This type of testing ground, with participants who give feedback directly to technologists at Devcon, is a boon for the network.
Beyond that, however, the event is a key venue for determining the network’s priorities for the year ahead.
“Lots of narratives make a lot of sense,” ConsenSys founder Joseph Lubin told CoinDesk when asked to define ethereum, adding:
“The ‘world computer’ narrative is a useful and good one. It’s called the ethereum ecosystem, or the decentralized protocol ecosystem, of which ethereum will be a central component.”

The plan

Devcon is an anomaly among cryptocurrency conferences in that the content is both highly technical and deliberately accessible.
Panels and workshops, about issues like scaling decentralized applications, revolve around opportunities for questions from community members of all skill levels. Sometimes engineers raise issues they’ve dealt with in serving clients, other times users ask about price mechanisms. There are even several panels and speaking slots reserved for ethereum rivals, like OpenLibra or ethereum classic.
So far, there aren’t any finite plans to address the scaling limitations of the current ethereum ecosystem with the blockchain’s upcoming iteration, Eth 2. However, there are several proposals in-process and thousands of people more invested in testing these theories than they are in profiting from them.
“The scope of who has been involved is an iterative process,” Ethereum Foundation developer Danny Ryan, part of the team leading research for Eth 2, told CoinDesk. “And we fully expect that to keep expanding [the process] all the way out to dapp users.”
He said community members can contribute comments and requests to the process via GitHub and Ethresear.ch, adding there will definitely be a more concrete plan for compatibility between ethereum and Eth 2 in 2020.
Speaking of how the MakerDAO ecosystem will adapt to the evolution of Eth 2, which may not provide backwards compatibility, Ethereum Foundation community manager Hudson Jameson told CoinDesk:
“We’re going to work very closely with dapps, big and small, to make sure data, such as MakerDAO’s loan contracts, can be utilized or transitioned in Eth 2.0.”
In the meantime, Gitcoin founder Kevin Owocki, currently incubated under the ConsenSys umbrella, is looking to increase funding for open-source developers beyond philanthropy from original ethereum co-founders.
Since the Gitcoin fund distribution platform launched in January 2019, Owocki told CoinDesk it has grown to process $200,000 of cryptocurrency donations a month.
“I’d love to work for the internet. I’d love for software developers not have to work at a corporate job that has a monopoly on their employment,” Owocki said, adding:
“I think there’s a lot of opportunity in this community to create systems that will scale … for sovereignty of employment.”

Definitions in progress

Outside critics harp on the vague use of language when it comes to defining goals and objectives for ethereum development.
But, like most ethereum fans at Devcon, Owocki isn’t bothered by the experimental nature of ethereum infrastructure development, which is arguably less rigorous and conservative than traditional open-source projects.
“I think it’s more honest not to have deadlines when you have something fundamentally new and you need to do research,” he said.
ConsenSys security engineer Shayan Eskandari, a bitcoiner since 2011 who helped create some of Iran’s leading educational resources for crypto users, said ethereum and bitcoin have inherently different philosophies.
“It’s like comparing gold with ice cream. Ethereum is a playground where you can do almost anything you want, although everything [in the protocols] will change,” he said, adding:
“Ethereum isn’t about trying to build censorship-resistant [money]. It’s about a more open system.”
Ethereum’s figureheads seem to share that view. Beyond funding early experiments with grants, Lubin said the 1,000-person ConsenSys is hiring again, after a round of layoffs late last year.
“We’ve built the early stages of the decentralized World Wide Web, the strongest candidate to be the base trust layer for the planet,” he said. “We have quite concrete plans, but I can only say things in vague terms.”
Sources with knowledge of the matter told CoinDesk that ConsenSys is working on pilot projects with financial institutions such as banks and government entities, which Lubin confirmed but declined to specify.
When asked what he expects the ethereum community, including his company, to accomplish by Devcon 2020, he replied, “more good stuff.”
Joseph Lubin speaks at Devcon 5, Osaka, Japan, October 2019, image via ConsenSys
submitted by GTE_IO to u/GTE_IO [link] [comments]

How I found what coins to invest in despite information overload

If you're new, maybe you've figured out already that there is a lot of data and opinions surfacing the internet. A lot of people appear to be experts. I remember a time when I could still read most, if not all, of the news articles available. Now I can't keep up.
We have information from experts, both for and against cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency itself is not easy to understand. It takes time and research to trust sources or reliable information. The internet is spammed with "The best crypto currency to invest in (now)!" And even harder- not all of these coins are scams! Some are. Some aren't. But, much like the dot com bubble, they are not all likely to sustain.
Here are my best tips:
  1. Research the market. Coingecko.com is a good source. It ranks coins by the most important data analytics. (More than hype, more than market cap/price)
  2. Research the best way to secure your assets. Hacking is very real.
  3. Ideas for step 1
-Find partnerships/similarities to determine probability. Coinbase for instance? Who are they partnered with where Bitcoin is accepted, but say Litecoin/Etherium aren't. Since Coinbase has Bitcoin, Litecoin, Etherium, we have probable cause for the other two working with the same company in the future.
-Learn of upcoming projects. For instance, what are Atomic Swaps? And what coins will have this capacity?
-Get a twitter account. Follow the developers themselves, not just the coin. Some of the developers have maybe 1500 followers and that's all. But maybe the actual coin has 60,000-100,000, say. Follow some of the early investors. I like CryptoHedge, Charlie Lee, Bobby Lee, Jameson Lopp, Coinbase, Etc.
-Print out a list of all the coins and begin highlighting the ones that make you curious. Begin crossing out the ones you're not interested in. Limit your finds to 15 coins or so. Begin researching them. (Again, coingecko.com is great for this.)
-Hold or as we say "hodl". Don't panic sell. If you researched it, you can feel good. Then if you want to buy more, buy more of the coin that may be currently frustrating you (while it's on a dip). Don't chase the coin you don't currently hold while it's up. If you missed it in your research, you missed it.
DISCLOSURE: I'm not a financial advisor. This is my opinion. I'm a holder of Bitcoin, Litecoin, Vertcoin, NEO, Sia and Ripple. Do your own research to make the best decision for you.
submitted by Kayjay4 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Are Bitcoin fundamentals getting stronger or weaker?

Well, I follow Bitcoin only since early 2017 but fundamentals (in equity you use quantitative and qualitative metrics) which are (directly or indirectly impacting Bitcoin) in my opinion:
Thanks to Jameson Lopp and Willy Woo
2018 commits & contributors : Bitcoin 3274 , LND 3050
Bitcoin Lightning evolution + Blockstream Satellite launch
Google scholar articles mentioning bitcoin in 2018 : 14,400 (from 136 in 2010, 4'680 2015)
Segwit adoption near 50%: https://transactionfee.info/charts/payments/segwit ( full SegWit adoption will bring blocks up to 2-4 mb range ?)
Mining difficulty strongly trending upward + GEForce GTX 1080 out of stock
Blockchain industry Venture capital funding in 2018: 3B USD from 0.8B in 2017 and 0.3B in 2014
Growth rate of Bitcoin reddit subscribers +61% in 2018.
FIO Protocol evolution : https://fio.foundation/ for a killer app, user friendly/mass adoption?
Guys like Spencer Bogart, Pantera Capital, Mike Novogratz, Tom Lee, Anthony Pompliano, Tim Draper putting huge ressources on it. (Yes they are speculators I know, but speculators also help providing blood to the bitcoin's heart. Tony Robbins also talking about it
Crypo ATM market doubled in 2018.
Can book 550K hotels in 210 countries in the world using Bitcoin : https://Travala.com
Guys like Andreas Antonopoulos, Erik Voorhees, Max Keiser supporting and educating us about Bitcoin on a daily basis.
Maybe the price overshooted fundamentals in december 2017 but they seem improving not deteriorating. Sure for now sentiment is a strong "fundamental".
Well I could write a book with all the Bitcoin direct on indirect fundamentals, ho thanks to the The Bitcoin Standard: The Decentralized Alternative to Central Banking by Saifedean Ammou.
Hope they are getting stronger. "Every year Bitcoin survives, it demonstrates the resilience and robustness of the protocol, market, and industry that supports it."
submitted by Sylfaen8 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

10 Reasons Why The Perfect Storm is Brewing for AION

The perfect storm is brewing for Aion to become a leader in the crypto space:
 
1. AIONEX, EDCON & CONSENSUS 2018 conferences have introduced AION to more people, developers & institutional investors than ever before. Matthew Spoke's performance on Consensus Interoperability Panel with Ripple, Polkadot & Litecoin left everlasting reactions & received the only applauses at the end of the Interoperability Panel.
AION's inaugural Dev conference AIONEX at Toronto on May 02, had 650 attendees. This is a record unseen by any other crypto's inaugural dev conference to date, compared to just 40 attendees at 1st Ethereum Devcon in 2014. And if Devcon grew to 350 attendees in 2015, it's not hard to see that the next AION Dev conference attendance will be in the thousands.
 
2. Token Swap from Aion ERC-20 to native Aion coins will soon be announced. The ETH-AION cross-chain bridge is already built & was showcased live on stage at AIONEX & EDCON, so it's only a matter of time before it's released.
 
3. US, Korean & Chinese exchanges are clearly waiting for the Token Swap to take place before they list native Aion coins rather than Aion ERC-20 tokens, they don't want to painstakingly swap ERC-20 tokens themselves as seen in ICON's token swap delay that's taking exchanges about 2-months & still not accomplished.
 
4. AION team has grown to 60 in-house team members in 4 different Aion offices in North America, Europe & Asia and plan to grow to 100 people by EOY. This is extremely rare in the crypto space & can only be compared to less than half a dozen of massive platform projects like CARDANO & EOS.
 
Aion GitHub activity is continuously ranked in top 10 platforms on Darpal Rating and CryptoMiso. Github activity, along with commits quality, are important metrics that get overlooked all the time when people compare Aion to other projects based on number of telegram users. Ethereum & Neo never even had telegram... Fat Protocol Ecosystems are not built by telegram hype but rather by worldwide Dev meetups & armies of developers that can build or contribute something that can change the world.
 
5. AION PR & Marketing are shifting into high gears now that the Mainnet is live. AIONEX, EDCON & CONSENSUS 2018 have put AION on the radar of the media. Matt Spoke is slowly becoming crypto's poster boy as seen on RBC's Disruptors Panel. It's only a matter of time before the mainstream media finds out about AION.
 
6. AION is introducing Real Technological Break-throughs with the first Cross-Chain bridge that completely moves tokens seamlessly between different blockchains using the Burn/Mint mechanism, unlike all Dapp platform projects since Ethereum that are still simple blockchain 2.0 platforms with no cross-chain capability or Atomic Swap projects that only transfer value between chains, but come with major limitations.
 
Another important point that gets forgotten in the Aion vs other interoperability projects is that Aion is all these 3 things at the same time:
 
AION is increasingly recognized as the leader of Interoperability —the holy grail of blockchain tech— that will solve scalability, privacy & isolation issues to unlock the true potential of Distributed Ledger Technologies. "This is the internet, decentralized."
 
7. METCALFE’s LAW states that the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2). This was proven repeatedly in the growth patterns of fat protocols like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Neo. Metcalfe’s Law favors interoperability projects even more, because Aion native tokens have utility far beyond the main Aion-1 blockchain:
 
8. Major AION Partners & Clients like Deloitte, TMX group (Canada's largest stock exchange), Moog Space & Defense Group, Vodafone, TD Bank, etc... are slowly moving their blockchain infrastructure to AION blockchain as they announced at AIONEX conference. This is taking place & growing the AION ecosystem while other Dapp platforms are rushing to parade their new Dapp ICOs that have little to no legitimate need for blockchain tech in the first place, but were rushed to launch ICOs to simply boast their Dapp numbers & suck more ICO funds from unsuspecting investors.
 
9. Future Partnerships will be relatively easy for AION to acquire given AION team's role as a founding board member of the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance, with the likes of Microsoft, Intel & JP Morgan (not just a regular EEA member like most other crypto projects) & the Blockchain Research Institute.
 
Aion cofounder Matthew Spoke has also strong credentials as the Fintech Advisor for the Ontario Securities Commission & Ministry of Finance and as a cofounder of the Muskoka Group along with the Tapscotts & Ethereum cofounder & ConsenSys founder Joeseph Lubin.
 
Not to mention Aion's unmatched advisory board from TMX group VP & Board of Directors and connections to Ethereum cofounders; Anthony Di lorio, Joeseph Lubin, Vitalik who's an advisor to Nuco.io & his father Dmitry Buterin who's an Angel investor in Nuco.io the company building Aion.
 
10. The TRS is coming to an end soon; however, the end of the token release schedule will slowly starts to get priced in long before the last release of Nov 2018; the date after which no more Aion will be released to public ever. Only mining/staking rewards will continue thereafter. The TRS also helps AION market cap climb up the MarketCap list with every release, adding to the increasing visibility & exposure that AION is getting.
 
People have seen what happened to fat protocols like Ethereum, Neo & Cardano, but it takes a special breed of people (and a bit of luck) to foresee why AION network interoperability will have a much bigger growth & impact potential on the entire crypto space. (This is not a financial advice. DYOR.)
submitted by Unleash-The-Kraken to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190825 (market index 33 — fear state)

Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190825 (market index 33 — fear state)

https://preview.redd.it/aiyjpcwg1mi31.png?width=900&format=png&auto=webp&s=81c735602cf4302328c609c0a4dfc7a2b1e1c86d
Encrypted calendar has been updated to 31st
Thailand Securities and Exchange Commission issues warning on encrypted trading investment scam According to the Bangkok Post, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued a warning on a new type of investment scam in which victims were lured to invest in self-proclaimed legitimate digital currency trading websites. Special Investigations spokesperson Woranan Silam conveyed to the public a warning from the SEC on Saturday that FX Trading Corporation was not authorized to conduct its promotional digital currency transactions. The spokesperson said that several other companies and websites have also been involved in fraud, most of which claim to be foreign companies operating outside of Thailand.
Casa Chief Technology Officer Jameson Lopp sends a Twitter article saying he is considering running for the US president Bitcoinist news, Bitcoin core developer and Casa CTO Jameson Lopp sent a Twitter article saying they are considering running for the US president. Lopp said: “If I can be elected, I will give each citizen a value of $1,000 per month. This is feasible because we will never run out of dollars. In the long run, the economic benefits will benefit the United States because we will eventually It has the most bitcoin.” The first reaction of the Twitter community to Jameson Lopp’s tweets was that this might be a scam, but there were some interesting messages in the reply below. Xsquared Ventures partner Brad Mills tried to mathematically calculate Lopp’s proposal: “Every year (due to the distribution of bitcoin spending) $ 3.9 trillion. At the end of your first term, US Treasury bonds will reach $ 37 trillion The market value of Bitcoin will reach $18 trillion in the fourth year, nearly $1 million per bitcoin. This is actually mathematically feasible considering government spending.”
Facebook is negotiating with members of the Libra Association and expects more support According to the Financial Times, as regulatory pressures increase, supporters of Facebook’s cryptocurrency project Libra are becoming more and more nervous. According to previous reports, three anonymous supporters of the Libra Association are currently considering launching the project. Facebook is currently negotiating with member companies of many associations that are willing to pay up to $10 million to participate in the project. These companies include Visa, Mastercard, Paypal and Uber. A source from one of the companies said, “It is difficult for those partners who want to be considered law-abiding to openly support the Libra project.” At the same time, Facebook is said to be disappointed that these companies have not publicly supported the project.
More than 99% of ransomware is traded using BTC The ransomware has become one of the world’s biggest security threats. More than 99% of ransomware has been traded using BTC. So far, the price of BTC has risen to more than 10,000 US dollars. The ransomware attack against enterprises in the last year or two has also come. The more data, according to Malwarebytes statistics, the global TO B ransomware attack has increased by 363% since June 2018, while the price of BTC has also risen linearly. Hackers are now looking at the digital currency market, mainly through the following One way to attack digital currency: 1. Attack by ransomware and directly extort BTC. 2. Steal the victim’s digital currency wallet through malicious programs. 3. Attack through digital currency website vulnerabilities and steal digital currency.
https://preview.redd.it/e7537x3m1mi31.png?width=473&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd30dd9c3c1eede9f4ad6e554c9ee9e06696cb3e

Encrypted project calendar(August 25, 2019)

CHX/Own: The Own project will launch the SillyCoin Valley game product on August 25.

Encrypted project calendar(August 26, 2019)

ICX/ICON: ICON(ICX)ICONists will vote for P-Reps and receive ICX awards starting August 26. MBL/Moviebloc: MovieBloc will share details about the MovieBloc service and wallet features in MovieBloc Service Preview 2 on August 26th. ETHOS/ETHOS Token: ETHOS Token (ETHOS) BitMart The first ETHOS Token Trading Contest will be closed on August 26, and participating users can divide 50,000 ETHOS.

Encrypted project calendar(August 27, 2019)

MAID/MaidSafeCoin: MaidSafeCoin Internet Coin (MAID) will host the 2019 Turing Festival in Edinburgh from August 27th to 29th. SC/Siacoin: Siacoin (SC) Pluralsight LIVE was held in Salt Lake City from August 27th to 29th, 2019.

Encrypted project calendar(August 28, 2019)

NULS/NULS: The NULS 2.0 Beta hackathon will be held from July 8th to August 28th, 2019. ZLA/Zilla: ZILLA (ZLA)’s complimentary $3,500 GD Token event will end on August 28.

Encrypted project calendar(August 29, 2019)

ICX/ICON: ICON(ICX)ICON will meet with HPB_Global in Korea on August 29th, and Asian Market Business Director Daniel Kwak will deliver a speech and will answer questions with participants. TYPE/Typerium: A 100-day countdown from Typerium will end on August 29th, and the project officially calls SecondComing. ONE/Harmony: The first phase of the Pangea project launched by Harmony is over, and the second phase will begin on August 29. KICK/KickCoin: KickCoin will be exchanged for KickToken for an exchange time of August 29, which will receive nearly 150% of the reward.

Encrypted project calendar(August 30, 2019)

XDCE/XinFin Network: 2019 TraceFinancial webinar will be held on August 30th WAX/WAX Token: WAX TokenSwap (WAX) to August 30, ERC-20 WAX Token token converted to WAX Token Cutoff UGAS/Ultrain: Ultrain community news, after the main network mapping starts on August 7, all UGAS holders must complete the registration of the Ultrain main wallet account by August 30th.

Encrypted project calendar(August 31, 2019)

ADX/AdEx: ADEX (ADX) will release the Validator Stack version 2.0 in August DADI/DADI: DADI will release the network CLI on August 31, with Stargates to support network services; and release Self Onboarding on the same day to allow the network to be more open. MITH/Mithril: The Mithril (MITH) team decided to implement the first MITH token destruction program on August 31. COS/Contentos: Contentos test network v0.5 “Jupiter” will be launched on August 31, this is the last version of the test before the main online line, alternate release.

Encrypted project calendar(September 01, 2019)

XLM/Stellar: Stellar (XLM) will conduct equity awards in binance on September 1st
https://preview.redd.it/dxbmry8o1mi31.png?width=473&format=png&auto=webp&s=dbafd618192f26600edb85910b877024c35812e6
There was a downside extension in bitcoin price below the $10,000 support against the US Dollar. The price is currently consolidating and is facing many hurdles on the upside near $10,200. There is a crucial bearish trend line forming with resistance near $10,000 on the 4-hours chart of the BTC/USD pair There could be a strong upward move if the price surges above $10,400 and $10,500. Bitcoin price is facing an uphill task near $10,500 and $10,680 against the US Dollar. BTC remains in a downtrend unless the bulls gain strength above $10,500.
https://preview.redd.it/pizmg18q1mi31.png?width=473&format=png&auto=webp&s=d1cb59c1654c1a18932f351a24b0a7ad762f6f95
Review previous articles: https://medium.com/@to.liuwen
Twitter:https://twitter.com/mianhuai8
Facebook:https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100022246432745
Telegram: https://t.me/Lay126
LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/%E4%BC%9F-%E5%88%98-294a12176/
submitted by liuidaxmn to u/liuidaxmn [link] [comments]

r/Bitcoin recap - January 2018

Hi Bitcoiners!
I’m back with the thirteenth monthly Bitcoin news recap. I must say it's becoming pretty hard to select just 1 or 2 stories per day, too much is going on!
For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in the Bitcoin space over the past month.
You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com
A recap of Bitcoin in January 2018
submitted by SamWouters to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Coldbit - New stainless steel seed backup design

Hi folks.
If you own any cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin you probably know how important it is to have a backup of your seed written down on something that will survive a flood or a house fire.
After evaluating current cold storage solutions, I must say I wasn't thoroughly pleased with their quality and design. My thoughts are reflected in Jameson Lopp's tests of various seed backup products.
So I decided to create my own. After months of testing I came up with a design that I'm very satisfied with and would like to share it with you.
It is called Coldbit. It's made of thick stainless steel (AISI 304). Instead of assembling the seed letters are stamped onto the plates using the most reliable and bulletproof technique - a hammer and a letter stamp set. They will not scramble even if a heavy log from the roof of your house hits it during a house fire. The steel plates are then bound together using nickel binding posts.
I believe this wallet will survive the most catastrophic events. I know that my seed words are safe inside it.
I'm planning to launch an online shop in Q4 2018. The prices will be competitive. Initially we'll ship only to EU countries and in Q1 2019 to the rest of the world. Look out for an announcement, I'll include a discount code when we launch.
Stay tuned.
submitted by hosiawak to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

10 Reasons Why The Perfect Storm is Brewing for AION

The perfect storm is brewing for Aion to become a leader in the crypto space:
 
1. AIONEX, EDCON & CONSENSUS 2018 conferences have introduced AION to more people, developers & institutional investors than ever before. Matthew Spoke's performance on Consensus Interoperability Panel with Ripple, Polkadot & Litecoin left everlasting reactions & received the only applauses at the end of the Interoperability Panel.
AION's inaugural Dev conference AIONEX at Toronto on May 02, had 650 attendees. This is a record unseen by any other crypto's inaugural dev conference to date, compared to just 40 attendees at 1st Ethereum Devcon in 2014. And if Devcon grew to 350 attendees in 2015, it's not hard to see that the next AION Dev conference attendance will be in the thousands.
 
2. Token Swap from Aion ERC-20 to native Aion coins will soon be announced. The ETH-AION cross-chain bridge is already built & was showcased live on stage at AIONEX & EDCON, so it's only a matter of time before it's released.
 
3. US, Korean & Chinese exchanges are clearly waiting for the Token Swap to take place before they list native Aion coins rather than Aion ERC-20 tokens, they don't want to painstakingly swap ERC-20 tokens themselves as seen in ICON's token swap delay that's taking exchanges about 2-months & still not accomplished.
 
4. AION team has grown to 60 in-house team members in 4 different Aion offices in North America, Europe & Asia and plan to grow to 100 people by EOY. This is extremely rare in the crypto space & can only be compared to less than half a dozen of massive platform projects like CARDANO & EOS.
 
Aion GitHub activity is continuously ranked in top 10 platforms on Darpal Rating and CryptoMiso. Github activity, along with commits quality, are important metrics that get overlooked all the time when people compare Aion to other projects based on number of telegram users. Ethereum & Neo never even had telegram... Fat Protocol Ecosystems are not built by telegram hype but rather by worldwide Dev meetups & armies of developers that can build or contribute something that can change the world.
 
5. AION PR & Marketing are shifting into high gears now that the Mainnet is live. AIONEX, EDCON & CONSENSUS 2018 have put AION on the radar of the media. Matt Spoke is slowly becoming crypto's poster boy as seen on RBC's Disruptors Panel. It's only a matter of time before the mainstream media finds out about AION.
 
6. AION is introducing Real Technological Break-throughs with the first Cross-Chain bridge that completely moves tokens seamlessly between different blockchains using the Burn/Mint mechanism, unlike all Dapp platform projects since Ethereum that are still simple blockchain 2.0 platforms with no cross-chain capability or Atomic Swap projects that only transfer value between chains, but come with major limitations.
 
Another important point that gets forgotten in the Aion vs other interoperability projects is that Aion is all these 3 things at the same time:
 
AION is increasingly recognized as the leader of Interoperability —the holy grail of blockchain tech— that will solve scalability, privacy & isolation issues to unlock the true potential of Distributed Ledger Technologies. "This is the internet, decentralized."
 
7. METCALFE’s LAW states that the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2). This was proven repeatedly in the growth patterns of fat protocols like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Neo. Metcalfe’s Law favors interoperability projects even more, because Aion native tokens have utility far beyond the main Aion-1 blockchain:
 
8. Major AION Partners & Clients like Deloitte, TMX group (Canada's largest stock exchange), Moog Space & Defense Group, Vodafone, TD Bank, etc... are slowly moving their blockchain infrastructure to AION blockchain as they announced at AIONEX conference. This is taking place & growing the AION ecosystem while other Dapp platforms are rushing to parade their new Dapp ICOs that have little to no legitimate need for blockchain tech in the first place, but were rushed to launch ICOs to simply boast their Dapp numbers & suck more ICO funds from unsuspecting investors.
 
9. Future Partnerships will be relatively easy for AION to acquire given AION team's role as a founding board member of the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance, with the likes of Microsoft, Intel & JP Morgan (not just a regular EEA member like most other crypto projects) & the Blockchain Research Institute.
 
Aion cofounder Matthew Spoke has also strong credentials as the Fintech Advisor for the Ontario Securities Commission & Ministry of Finance and as a cofounder of the Muskoka Group along with the Tapscotts & Ethereum cofounder & ConsenSys founder Joeseph Lubin.
 
Not to mention Aion's unmatched advisory board from TMX group VP & Board of Directors and connections to Ethereum cofounders; Anthony Di lorio, Joeseph Lubin, Vitalik who's an advisor to Nuco.io & his father Dmitry Buterin who's an Angel investor in Nuco.io the company building Aion.
 
10. The TRS is coming to an end soon; however, the end of the token release schedule will slowly starts to get priced in long before the last release of Nov 2018; the date after which no more Aion will be released to public ever. Only mining/staking rewards will continue thereafter. The TRS also helps AION market cap climb up the MarketCap list with every release, adding to the increasing visibility & exposure that AION is getting.
 
People have seen what happened to fat protocols like Ethereum, Neo & Cardano, but it takes a special breed of people (and a bit of luck) to foresee why AION will have a much bigger growth & impact potential on the entire crypto space. (This is not a financial advice. DYOR.)
submitted by Unleash-The-Kraken to AionNetwork [link] [comments]

Untangling a few things about network consolidation and "too few nodes on the network to serve all users"

I see this mentioned more and more even on this subreddit. The idea is that the network is at risk of having too few nodes running to serve all users and that there needs to be some external motivation to store the blockchain and propagate transactions.
Satoshi explained both very early on and throughout his later communications with the community that he expected there to eventually be only a few large hashing nodes incentivized to keep LAN farms of mining equipment or blockchain holding "client nodes", in extension enabling SPV wallets for others through their "client only mode" intended for ordinary users.
The key word here is incentivized. Bitcoin relies only on market forces and requires no central planning — external or internal — of the network or prices regarding any of its key functions.
He approximated that the network would never reach more than a hundred thousand unidentified nodes, probably less, before it was no longer worth it for more to join in. At this new equilibrium, the network would instead start its consolidation.
The current system where every user is a network node is not the intended configuration for large scale. That would be like every Usenet user runs their own NNTP server. The design supports letting users just be users.
The common worries over Pools, ASICs and not enough propagating or blockchain storing nodes in the network are thus completely overblown. Satoshi encouraged every step on this ladder of evolution. He mined more than anyone at the time, implemented multi-core mining, helped on gpu-mining and encouraged pooled mining. He even considered dropping the number of nodes on the network drastically by introducing "client only mode" (Simplified Payment Verification) as the standard mode of the Bitcoin reference software.
As you would know from carefully reading the whitepaper, SPV was fully capable of being implemented. No extra "fraud proofs" were actually necessary for it, even if they may have helped to increase security. The concept was incredibly simple and only relied on following proof of the longest chain with the most work (Proof of Work) rather than relying on conventional "trust".
In may of 2010, Satoshi made it clear again on one of the old forums that
SPV is not implemented yet, and won't be implemented until far in the future, but all the current implementation is designed around supporting it.
Yet again, this makes clear that if someone suggests something like SegWit or any other new technology to be a necessity for Simplified Payment Verification to work, they are not getting the design (the paper) at all.
Now, all respect to various individuals like Jameson Lopp, Peter Todd and others on the subjects they generally know well; Code and developer standards. But they are not the engineers of a full blown peer to peer electronic cash system and they lack the economic understanding of how scaling a market based (peacefully hierarchical) system of sound money must work.
Further more, which is not in the slightest to suggest that the network would need it, there may still be other businesses than miners that run their own "idle" so called "client nodes" even though they do not mine. This is because large organizations with more frequent payments are likely to seek higher security whenever they can and if the price is right.
As it says in the design
Businesses that receive frequent payments will probably still want to run their own nodes for more independent security and quicker verification.
But this is a "probability" and Bitcoin was not made to depend on it at all.
submitted by fruitsofknowledge to btc [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Core supporters (e.g. Vortex) are delusional! BTC mempool has cleared b/c less people are using BTC.

I don't want to call out bs on just Vortex, there are many more people like Jameson lopp who are pushing the narrative that spamming of the network has stopped, and as a result there are almost zero unconfirmed BTC transactions in the mempool and low confirmation fees.
However, this is not true, and I will use Vortex simply because i was too lazy to call everyone out.
First of all, it is true - LN, segwit, batching, and less spamming on the network have all contributed to clearing out part of the mempool.
But the main reason why the mempool has cleared is because less people are using BTC plain and simple.
The Facts:
1) Here are charts on the number of transactions over time on BTC network taken from Vortex's twitter. As to why he was retweeting these charts, i have no clue because they simply make my point stronger:
https://twitter.com/lopp/status/966377933051895808
https://twitter.com/bitcoin_bh/status/966693648841740294
Both charts show number of transactions have been decreasing steadily since December.
2) The price of bitcoin has also been decreasing since December.
Simple economics shows us that if there were more ppl using BTC, more ppl would buy BTC; therefore, price would drive up. However, the very opposite has been happening. The demand for bitcoin has decreased, which is causing the price to go down.
So Vortex keep trying to slander other ppl. This tweet is just filled with fud. We all know the truth man, your just making yourself look dumb. https://twitter.com/theonevortex/status/966686594542419969
🙌🏽
submitted by rogerd63 to btc [link] [comments]

r/Bitcoin recap - July 2018

Hi Bitcoiners!
I’m back with the nineteenth monthly Bitcoin news recap.
For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month.
You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com
A recap of Bitcoin in July 2018
submitted by SamWouters to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Currencies of Social Organisation: The Future of Money (Sherryl Vint)

so, was reading Davies, William (ed.) - Economic Science Fictions (2018) the other day, and thought i'd share the entire chapter Currencies of Social Organisation: The Future of Money from part I: The Science and Fictions of the Economy. bit long, but worth the while.
oh, and, how does it relate to holochain, some might ask again. read up. it quickly becomes self-evident.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
"Presented with the prospect of its own eternity, capitalism –​ or anyway, financial capitalism –​ simply explodes. Because if there’s no end to it, there’s absolutely no reason not to generate credit –​ that is, future money –​ infinitely."
David Graeber, Debt: The First 5,000 Years
Perhaps the first thing that comes to mind when thinking aboutscience fiction and money is the different kinds of currencies that are imagined for future worlds: the poscreds of Philip K. Dick’s Ubik, a currency required for every minute transaction such that the door becomes not an item you own but, rather, a provider of services for which you must continually pay, leaving protagonist Joe Chip trapped in his own apartment until someone pays his door to open; the bars of gold-​pressed latinum used by the avaricious Ferengi on Star Trek, the only thing that cannot be replicated in this post-​scarcity world, useless other than as an atavistic marker of wealth; the reputation-​ based currency of whuffie in Cory Doctorow’s Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom, used to replace the social role money plays in creating a hierarchy in another post-​scarcity world. The inventiveness of SF writers creating objects or systems of account that might serve as money is matched by its actual history and the wide range of items that have served as currency, from large stone wheels called Rai used as money on the island of Yap, to the split tally sticks of medieval English practice, to coinage and the ideal that a gold standard is the ‘real’ value of money, to slips of paper inscribed with various authentications and, finally, to the electronic signals used to store and transmit denominations of value. It turns out that, although most of the world uses money on a daily basis and has done so for almost as long as there have been records of human civilisation, it is not very clear what money actually is. How does money work? What is the underlying relationship among some underlying thing of ‘actual’ value (gold, land, the goods and services produced by a nation), the tokens of that value (coins, banknotes, electronic account balances) and the entity guaranteeing that said tokens are, basically, the same as that underlying thing of value (the King, the Bitcoin algorithm, the European Union). Reading about the history of money turns out to be surprisingly like reading science fiction: the kind of money a society has tells us a lot about the kind of human sociality that is possible in that world. Most definitions of money agree that it needs to be three things: a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value. The ‘store of value’ requirement tends to be overlooked in science fiction extrapolations, confusing whether money is simply a way of keeping ‘score’ of who owes what to whom or whether money is itself something of inherent value (even if it has no ‘use value’, such as gold), such that it will continue to be accepted even through periods of massive social and political disruption. More importantly, however, commentators agree that changes to this configuration of value, accounting, exchange practices and objects-​ serving-​as-​money are deeply consequential for the surrounding social order. Jack Weatherford argues in The History of Money, for example, that new forms of money destroy old forms of governance that were premised on the prior system of economics. 2 His book takes us through a number of such transitions: from a tributary economy of empire based on commodity money that was destabilised by the invention of coinage; through the invention of a system of banking and paper notes that disrupted and undermined the feudal system of medieval Europe by opening a path for power based on wealth (stocks and bonds) rather than on heredity (land); to the prediction that our contemporary system of electronic transfer will have similarly transformative effects on the future. Although science fiction has often imagined new objects or systems serving as currency in the future, it has seldom worked through the cultural power of money as an engine of social control, preferring to either posit post-​scarcity societies of human fulfilment, such as Star Trek’s benevolent Federation of Planets or Iain M. Banks’ Culture universe, or else envisage worlds of ever-​deepening capitalist uneven development that polarises humanity between lush zones of privilege and apocalyptic zones of deprivation that are, crucially, simultaneously produced by the same forces –​ the Sprawl of William Gibson’s cyberpunk trilogy, the orbiting gated community of Elysium (Neill Blomkamp), the privatised air of Rose Montero’s Bruna Husky series or the future of privatised food and seed corporation governance in Paolo Bacigalupi’s The Windup Girl. Although science fiction is frequently set in the future, it is always about its present moment of production. Thus, rather than predicting future kinds of money and sociality inherent in this coming shift, the more important thing science fiction can do is to help make visible –​ through estranging extrapolation that denatures what we take to be natural –​ how money functions in our present. In Money: The Unauthorized Biography, Felix Martin argues that we misrecognise money in its classic definition. Instead of thinking of it as a unit of exchange or store of value, he argues that money is a ‘social technology’ composed of three central elements: a denominating unit of value; a system of indebtedness and credits; and the possibility that debts can be transferred to another creditor. It is this third element that is the most crucial, and he contends that, ‘whilst all money is credit, not all credit is money’. Money is a social technology of transferable credit, ‘a set of ideas and practices which organise what we produce and consume, and the way we live together’. Martin goes on to explain that to arrive at this idea it was necessary first to develop one of a universal standard of value, a concept of economic value that is detached from any particular social organisation in which a debt might be incurred. Debt thereby becomes not a social exchange between people as part of a larger social structure of mutual obligations but simply a unit of account that might be transferred to another creditor and mean exactly the same thing, as if the value measured by money was a physical property in the world instead of a measure of human social structures and decisions. This idea of abstract and universal value opens the door to some of the more deleterious effects of the social technology of money. As Martin acknowledges, ‘[T]‌the choice of monetary standard is always a political one –​ because the standard itself represents nothing but a decision as to what is a fair distribution of wealth, income, and the risks of economic uncertainty.’ For Martin, the decision to view money as a thing rather than a social technology –​ which he dates to the Enlightenment and John Locke, with his insistence that the value of the coinage had to be the ‘material’ value of the metal, not the nominal value designated by the sovereign –​ was the first step in what would eventually become our 2008 financial crisis. In the Lockean understanding of money as a thing with inherent and universal worth, a centuries-​long question regarding the degree to which money should be allowed to structure how we live with one another was short-​circuited, taken out of the realm of ethical debate and put into that of natural ‘fact’. We treat money as a mathematical truth rather than a social choice with often disastrous consequences, reducing ‘vital questions of moral and political justice to the mechanical application of objective scientific truths’. 7 With this understanding of money, Western societies came to see a myriad of complex human social relationships through the single and narrow framework of economic self-​interest. In its role as a genre that defamiliarises the present by exaggerating it into an imagined future, science fiction can serve a vital role in reminding us that money is a social technology, not a thing. For example, Andrew Niccol’s film In Time (2009) posits a world in which the unit of account is simply time: one works not for dollars or credits but for minutes, hours, days and, ultimately, years of one’s life. One of the things it immediately makes clear is how ridiculous the fiction is that capitalists and workers (that is, sellers of labour-​power) meet at the market in any manner that remotely resembles an exchange among equals: the capitalist can always wait another day for a more favourable negotiation but the worker, who needs to sell his or her labour-​power to continue to live, cannot. Niccol shows the social costs of inflation, which makes a cup of coffee cost more ‘minutes’ than it did the day before, creating dilemmas for workers who can stretch the working day only so far to accommodate the change. More and more of one’s time is spent working –​ that is, accumulating minutes to live –​ but at some point the number of currency minutes needed to sustain life exceeds the time needed to accumulate them, and the most economically vulnerable simply die. The rich, in contrast, are seemingly immortal, since their time simply existing continues to accumulate ever more minutes through the crucial fact that what they own is capital, not mere labour-​power. Time is a problematic image for currency, of course: it can function well as a unit of account and perhaps even can serve as a medium of exchange (people gamble minutes, hours and years; people give one another minutes, and such economic support is, quite literally, life support), but it is difficult to imagine how time can be a store of value. This is where the film’s attempt to critique the discrepancy between the one-​percent and everyone else falls apart: a disaffected one-​percenter with centuries of life but no purpose (Matt Bomer) decides to give his years to protagonist Will Salas (Justin Timberlake), who uses this unexpected luxury (of time that need not be productive) to penetrate the echelons of the wealthiest citizens –​ tolls to these inner zones are paid in weeks, then months, then years –​ and attempt to destroy the system of lives held in thrall to generating money. The image the film uses to convey this revolutionary overthrow is a raid on a ‘bank’ that has an accumulated stockpile of time, time that is simply sitting there unused while people expire due to its lack. Salas forms a partnership with the disaffected daughter of one of the bank’s major stockholders (Amanda Seyfried), and together they steal and freely distribute this vast quantity of ‘unused’ time, thereby ending the structures of precarity lived by those struggling to ensure they have enough ‘time’ to live another day. Rather than critiquing the limitations of imagining time as a currency, I want to focus instead on what this image makes visible: that money is a social technology, that it always is, as Martin argues, a political tool that structures the way we live collectively and what we as a society have decided is a fair distribution of wealth and risk. By so directly linking the ability to secure a wage to the chances to continue to exist, In Time lays bare an underlying logic of neoliberal capitalism that is otherwise obscured by a discourse that naturalises the market and attempts to compel us to believe that we must accommodate ourselves to its dictates rather than recognise that its very functioning is a creation of human choice. If time in the film functioned as do other currencies, of course, Salas’s heroic gesture would simply contribute to inflation, the collapse of the ‘buying power’ of a unit of time. Despite this limitation, however, In Time points us towards the fundamental injustice of an economic system that extends some people’s lives and capacities while it shortens others. The underlying issue is the relationship between creditors (those with time to spare) and debtors (those whose very lives are in bondage to an economic system). David Graeber’s masterful Debt: The First 5,000 Years is actually another history of money, despite its title. One of his most powerful claims is that we more properly understand the social technology of money as a system of debt rather than one of credit. Whereas, for Martin, money is transferrable credit, Graeber points out that this is simultaneously a transformation of the social obligations that humans have to one another into specifically economic obligations, creating a society that, taken to its logical extreme, results in a world in which all social exchange is financialised debt. Graeber begins his book with an account of the massive social disruption caused by International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans to developing nations, indebtedness that required countries ‘to abandon price supports on basic foodstuffs, or even policies of keeping strategic food reserves, and abandon free health care and free education’ in the name of prioritising the obligation to pay back debt, leading to ‘the collapse of all the most basic supports for some of the poorest and most vulnerable people on earth’. Whereas for Martin the transferability of credit is essential to making it function as money, for Graeber it is precisely the way credit (that is, indebtedness) becomes transferable that creates the social chaos of a society that is thus premised on inequality. For Graeber, debt can become transferable only when it becomes ‘simple, cold, and impersonal’, detached from any larger social context of mutual support and purely a ‘precisely quantified’ sum for which ‘one does not need to calculate the human effects; one needs only calculate principal, balances, penalties, and rates of interest’. He traces the history of debt –​ and social crises of indebtedness –​ from the beginnings of recorded human civilisation through to the IMF crises and beyond, connecting the 2008 financial crisis and bank bailouts to the same fundamental mechanisms of inequality that always structure an economy based on money: just as governments spent money to repay IMF loans rather than to offer social services to their population, so too did governments pay to protect the wealthy few who own bank bonds at the expense of other taxpayers. This was a crisis created by the seemingly endless generation of new forms of credit, new ways to make money out of records of debt, a specific form of money as capital –​ that is, as money that must continually grow. Only the power of the US military, Graeber argues, holds the world economic system together based on a fear of reprisal: ‘[T]‌he last thirty years have seen the construction of a vast bureaucratic apparatus for the creation and maintenance of hopelessness, a giant machine designed, first and foremost, to destroy any sense of possible alternative futures.’ Here his discussion of the history of debt begins to sound a lot like discussions of the SF imagination. In recent years critics such as Fredric Jameson and writers such as Kim Stanley Robinson have deplored the failure of the utopian imagination, our inability to imagine alternatives beyond the social order created by capitalism. For Graeber, the disappearance of hope has to do with the crushing circumstances of chronic indebtedness, a cycle that has recurred throughout history and for which, until modern times, a solution existed. This solution is an amnesty on debt, a decision to simply reset all accounts and start over whenever the burden of debt on one segment of the population became so heavy as to debilitate its chances to thrive and also to destabilise the entire social order premised on class difference between debtors and debtees. Graeber links debt forgiveness to an ancient biblical Law of the Jubilee, which ‘stipulated that all debts would be automatically cancelled “in the Sabbath year” (that is, after seven years had passed), and that all who languished in bondage owing to such debts would be released’. Martin dates the idea of periodic debt forgiveness as a way to manage the socially deleterious effects of indebtedness even earlier, arguing that records of this ‘Mesopotamian practice of proclaiming a clean slate when the burden of debt became socially unsupportable are almost as old as the earliest evidence for interest-​bearing debt itself –​ dating from the reign of Enmetana of Lagash in around 2,400 BC’. Graeber ends his book with a call for a contemporary Jubilee on international and consumer debt, arguing that it would be helpful ‘not just because it would relieve so much genuine human suffering, but also because it would be our way of reminding ourselves that money is not ineffable, that paying one’s debts is not the essence of morality, that all these things are human arrangements and that if democracy is to mean anything, it is the ability to all agree to arrange things in a different way’. The best kind of SF vision of the future of money may thus be an idea taken from the distant past, a period proximate enough to the emergence of money and its new social structures that people remained capable of recognising it as a social policy, not a fact of nature. While science fiction has often imagined post-​scarcity societies that thereby eliminate indebtedness, very little has imagined the future of monetary policy and banking. A notable exception is the work of Charles Stross, especially his novel Neptune’s Brood, which uses a passage from Graeber’s book as its epigraph. Stross imagine the future of capitalist social organisation as mutated to accommodate trading across the vast distances of space colonisation and at the high speeds of computer consciousness. Taking his cues from the fact that much of the derivative market consists of trades done by algorithms and software, often requiring an advanced degree in physics to be understood, Stross posits a future of artificial humanoid beings whose ethos is shaped by an ecology of capital treated as if it were nature. Most of the critical discussion about the novel focuses on Stross’s idea of slow, medium, and fast money. Fast money is what we are accustomed to: ‘Cash is fast money. We use it for immediate exchanges of value. Goods and labor: You sell, I buy.’ Medium money is something that more durably stores its value, and is not reliant on the vagaries of governments and fiscal policy like fast money, as in: ‘Cathedrals and asteroids and debts and durable real estate and bonds backed by the honorable reputation of traders in slow money.’ And, finally, slow money is the kind of money required to finance interstellar trade and colonisation in a world without faster-​than-​light (FTL) travel: ‘Slow money is a medium of exchange designed to outlast the rise and fall of civilizations. It is the currency of world-​builders, running on an engine of debt that can only be repaid by the formation of new interstellar colonies, passing the liability ever onward into the deep future.’The details of the novel’s adventure plot –​ featuring a forensic accountant hero –​ show us how such a society, continually passing along debt, would be filled with avarice and exploitation, with only the most instrumental of interpersonal relations. The novel is a careful and thorough figuration of the end extreme of capitalism. A vision of the future anticipated in the epigraph from Graeber above, a future of ever more overwhelming indebtedness, the flip side of money understood as transferable credit. The ultimate horizon of the novel is the reinvention of the Jubilee, the ‘systemwide rest of the financial system entailing nullification of all debts’. Its characters, shaped by capitalism as a necessary fact of life, struggle to imagine the possibility of such a Jubilee. The accountant protagonist, Krina, for example, is shocked when she hears of someone functioning as a debt termination officer, exclaiming: ‘[M]‌atters should never reach the stage where they need to terminate a bad debt! Far better to stir it up with a bunch of lumpen credit properties and shuffle it off to a long-​term investment trust for toxic assets.’ So how does Stross create the conditions for a Jubilee in Neptune’s Brood when no one is power has any incentive to forgive the debs that are the foundation of their social structure? The transformation happens because of the discovery of a kind of matter transmission that enables the equivalent of FTL travel, meaning all financial exchanges can happen at the speed of fast money, and so the accumulated stockpiles of wealth that are slow money are suddenly rendered meaningless. Indebtedness is thereby wiped out when the value of this currency collapses, since a vast slow money debt can now be paid with a pittance of fast money. Obviously Stross’s solution cannot easily be translated into our world, because we do not denominate our currencies in this way nor trade at interstellar distances. Yet I think it still holds a lesson for us that only the displacements of science fiction thinking can capture. The collapse of the slow money economy completely transforms existing power relations, and it is also devastating for those who have accumulated vast holdings in this debt-​based currency. At the same time, however, freedom from debt for others opens up so many more possibilities as to where the resources and energy might go that the positive elements of change are equally powerful to the disruptive ones. The transition is enabled in part by a branch of humanoids whose neural architecture has been transformed to communicate mental states through light, a post-​human redesign intended to make them more effective workers (bypassing the slowness of language). This transformation also changed their social order, however, in ways that ultimately sidelined money and property: ‘They’re still individuals, but the border between self and other is thinner. And they don’t hate. They own property but they don’t have strong social hierarchies –​ top-​down control is a dangerous liability to a team trying to trap a runaway natural nuclear reactor –​ they’re instinctive mutualists. They understand money and debt and credit and so on, but they don’t feel a visceral need to own: What they owe doesn’t define their identity.’ A different kind of human sociality plants the seed for a different relationship to property and money, which ultimately opens the door to detaching human futures from the tyranny of debt. If, as Martin argues, money is a social technology, ‘a set of ideas and practices which organise what we produce and consume, and the way we live together’, then science fiction can make visible the kind of social engineering done by the capitalist technology of money. As a social technology, the tool of money can be oriented towards other kinds of ideas and practices, other kinds of social orders, other kinds of subjectivities. Both In Time and Neptune’s Brood offer exaggerated and extrapolated visions of the society the current technology of money creates, focusing on the human suffering that is produced by keeping this technology in place. Science fiction has always been about the idea that social arrangements might be otherwise, about extrapolating known technologies towards novel ends. Stross gives us a tantalising hint of the possible future of a debt Jubilee, of one way we might reinvent the technology of money.

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