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Magic: The Gathering format which takes its source of randomness from the Bitcoin Cash blockchain.

Constructed got less challenging when net decking (looking up well tested decks online) became possible... Random Constructed is a format that attempts to make constructed more interesting.
Every week, 3 sets are picked from which to construct decks and battle. The Bitcoin Cash blockchain is used as a source of unbiased randomness.
Randomness comes from the hash of the first block mined after noon on Sunday. The new week's format is locked in from 4pm GMT on Sunday and lasts exactly one week. A new tweet is posted on Twitter when the sets change. You can also run the code yourself to see what the current sets. Source code is hosted here.
The number of combinations of three sets from the current 95 in the set list is 138415 so no net decking will be possible :D
Happy building!
submitted by randomconstructed to btc [link] [comments]

Blockchain.info has updated to the new Bitcoin (BCH) address format!

Blockchain.info has updated to the new Bitcoin (BCH) address format! submitted by MemoryDealers to btc [link] [comments]

Magic: The Gathering format which takes its source of randomness from the Bitcoin Cash blockchain.

Constructed got less challenging when net decking (looking up well tested decks online) became possible... Random Constructed is a format that attempts to make constructed more interesting.
Every week, 3 sets are picked from which to construct decks and battle. The Bitcoin Cash blockchain is used as a source of unbiased randomness.
Randomness comes from the hash of the first block mined after noon on Sunday. The new week's format is locked in from 4pm GMT on Sunday and lasts exactly one week. A new tweet is posted on Twitter when the sets change. You can also run the code yourself to see what the current sets. Source code is hosted here.
The number of combinations of 3 sets from the current 95 in the set list is 138415 so no net decking will be possible :D
Opinions welcome!
submitted by randomconstructed to Magicdeckbuilding [link] [comments]

The Bitcoin Times: the "Bitcoin, not Blockchain" argument in a very nice format

submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

XRP/USD bearish flag formation eyed #blockchain #bitcoin #altcoin trade bitcoins https://t.co/TTKuxkIhDn - Crypto Dynamic Info - Whales's

Posted at: January 19, 2019 at 05:37PM
By:
XRP/USD bearish flag formation eyed #blockchain #bitcoin #altcoin trade bitcoins https://t.co/TTKuxkIhDn
Automate your Trading via Crypto Bot : http://bit.ly/2GynF9t
Join Telegram Channel for FREE Crypto Bot: Crypto Signal
submitted by cryptotradingbot to cryptobots [link] [comments]

#PAXCOIN #blockchain #currency #mining The problem of Bitcoin it takes long formation time. But in the PAXCoin it extended the block size to 2 MB (megabytes) and reduced the transaction time to less than 1 minute.

submitted by hirushaperera to cryptocurrencynewico [link] [comments]

Voting is dumb, educating is smart. Bitcoin 1776 is about conducting informed decision making in a structured, mathematical format which ~could~ be incorporated to a blockchain (but absolutely no promises) =)

Voting is dumb, educating is smart. Bitcoin 1776 is about conducting informed decision making in a structured, mathematical format which ~could~ be incorporated to a blockchain (but absolutely no promises) =) submitted by kybarnet to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Magic the gathering format which takes it's source of randomness from the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. /r/btc

Magic the gathering format which takes it's source of randomness from the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. /btc submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Magic: The Gathering format which takes its source of randomness from the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. /r/btc

Magic: The Gathering format which takes its source of randomness from the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. /btc submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Please help! How to pull data from Blockchain.info (or equivalent) and put it into csv, xlsx format or R file? Specifically, block number and associated number of transactions per block. /r/Bitcoin

Please help! How to pull data from Blockchain.info (or equivalent) and put it into csv, xlsx format or R file? Specifically, block number and associated number of transactions per block. /Bitcoin submitted by HiIAMCaptainObvious to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

For Cold and Warm Bitcoin Blockchain Game I need historic block header data in ASCII, CSV or json format /r/Bitcoin

For Cold and Warm Bitcoin Blockchain Game I need historic block header data in ASCII, CSV or json format /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Blockchain.info has updated to the new Bitcoin (BCH) address format!

Blockchain.info has updated to the new Bitcoin (BCH) address format! submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Cash addresses have a new format so you can easily distinguish them from bitcoin addresses. As of today, you'll see this updated for all Bitcoin Cash addresses in your Blockchain wallet

https://blog.blockchain.com/2018/01/23/cashaddr-bitcoin-cash-addresses/
submitted by Blockchain-support to u/Blockchain-support [link] [comments]

01-24 21:13 - 'Bitcoin Cash addresses have a new format so you can easily distinguish them from Bitcoin addresses' (blog.blockchain.com) by /u/Miladran removed from /r/Bitcoin within 4-14min

Bitcoin Cash addresses have a new format so you can easily distinguish them from Bitcoin addresses
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: Miladran
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

For Cold and Warm Bitcoin Blockchain Game I need historic block header data in ASCII, CSV or json format

Promise is promise. I have promised my students to come with Cold and Warm Bitcoin Game, based on Bitcoin Blockchain block header data, as soon as possible but it took me already months since I am stuck making efforts to download historic block header data in ASCII format, to be entered into mining simulator. A student should play cold and warm game entering his guess nonce as input to let mining algorithm (block hashing) to verify his lucky number.
Other students having known the winning nonce should give him/her commands cold or warm, colder, warmer, hot.
Block number should be random selected and nonce should be entered by a slider
There are many websites offering API to block explorer service but none is known to me to let me download full Bitcoin blockchain historic header data.
For the most services, nonce is missing or is set to "0" by default.
I would greatly appreciate your help and advice.
submitted by GlobalInnovator to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How can I read the blockchain in a ledger format? /r/Bitcoin

How can I read the blockchain in a ledger format? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Announcing the formation of the Blockchain Alliance /r/Bitcoin

Announcing the formation of the Blockchain Alliance /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Somebody actually paid $3.72 to put that shitty Western Union vs. Bitcoin meme into the blockchain in an esoteric format.

Somebody actually paid $3.72 to put that shitty Western Union vs. Bitcoin meme into the blockchain in an esoteric format. submitted by Mark_Karpeles_ to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

I think I witnessed a Wayfair Bitcoin Transaction Just Now

I think I just witnessed a girl get sold for Bitcoin in a transaction today; and the part number was a blockchain wallet address?
So, the image that came up in the Image Search from Yandex showed that girl in red shorts, and it states the image was 3 hours ago from when i did a screenshot. The transaction I found being two hours ago, meaning that girl could have been offered and then sold for $420k (or 46 bitcoin).
How I got there:
I used the Part Number:
BEC4DFB05F3F4A5090E4882D88732A14
That showed up in Google's Cache:
https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:LpSVRLIE7TQJ:https://www.wayfair.com/furniture/pdx/wfx-utility-samiyah-5-shelf-storage-cabinet-w002983549.html
And this matched a blockchain (transaction?) worth 46 bitcoin (~$420k) using a Yandex search which took place 2 hours ago from writing this (2020-07-11 14:24); again that photo posting only an hour before the transaction occured. I have not read up a bunch on the terminology; I need to, especially if Brock Pierce wins the election.
https://www.blockchain.com/ko/btc/tx/eaa50b379f87e99dd1161962f7905610b4924f31fc0f8af75d7f7a4ec3cac0ce
Edit 1:
BEC4DFB05F3F4A5090E4882D88732A14
Went down a rabbit hole, and came across this nugget.
Went to this search link:
https://yandex.com/images/search?text=src%20ru%20BEC4DFB05F3F4A5090E4882D88732A14&from=tabbar
Saw a picture of a girl in tight clothes, so I clicked that, brought me here:
https://ucrazy.ru/video/1594489754-zalipatelnaya-podborka.html
There is a video there that is an Oddly Satisfying video with random shit in it, but ten minutes in is that same girl, posing; "zalipatelnaya podborka"?
https://youtu.be/MQW0kT1pE1M

Edit 2 :
Something about this YouTube Channel (TRAMBOLINO COMPILATION - which I found from the link in Edit 1)...
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCn42HkmbUavCnHhwnvwpl_g
A few of the Oddly Satisfying videos feature women posing for 5 seconds near the tail end of these videos... I hate to say it, but I almost feel like these are girls getting sold / offered out. And they are using these YouTube videos to do it; it wouldn't really raise attention to an innocent viewer; just some random girls nothing provocative.
Edit 3:
Found another video in this format on a random site from another Search.
https://prikol.is/zalipatelnaya-podborka/ - 9:40 in on this one
submitted by kitties-plus-titties to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Ethos wallet issue with transaction fees

Hey guys, so I've made a post on ethos_io but nothing came of it, so I thought to post here in case anyone can help. In case you want to look over that thread here it is: https://www.reddit.com/ethos_io/comments/hrssa4/sending_btc_to_another_wallet_fees/
In short, I have about 100 euro worth of BTC in ethos smart wallet, and now I've decided since its apparently an abandoned project to move to a different one. However, when I get to the screen where I can select the speed of my transaction, even on the cheapest option I get the message that the fees would exceed current balance or something along those general lines.
I've dug around a bit on Google and I found two sites (both links in the other thread) that state the transaction fee for the bitcoin network to be around 1.2 USD. Obviously this is way less than what I have in my wallet and to be frank, Im panik a bit because it wont let me move my bitcoin off the wallet. The app hasnt been updated for a long time, since 2019 I think, so waiting for an update to fix this isnt an option, and Im not too optimistic on contacting their support, if it still exists.
That being my situation, what do you think I can do to get the bitcoin off ethos wallet and onto a new one. By the way, I dont think there is an option to view the keys in ethos, so I cant go that route I think.
I hope there is a way to solve this, 100 euro for me right now is quite a lot of money. Thanks in advance!
Edit: just thought to add a screenshot of the transaction s reen https://imgur.com/a/x4yt98B
Edot 2 (solution): redditofuse's answer solved my problem for me :) on mobile so forgive formatting.
"It looks like Ethos Wallet doesn't use a standard derivation path. Try this recovery tool while offline: https://support.ethos.io/support/solutions/articles/35000082707-how-to-use-the-bip39-recovery-tool also, don't use Blockchain.com to sweep the BTC. Use the recovery tool to find your private keys for each address you have BTC on. Sweep each private key into a new Coinomi wallet. You then should be able to restore the Coinomi wallet onto the Ledger wallet, or you could create a new wallet on the Ledger, and send the BTC from Coinomi to the Ledger."
submitted by promitheas17j to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to verify if a transaction is correctly signed?

Given an arbitrary signed raw transaction, how can we easily verify if all inputs are correctly signed (admiting all UTXOs are present and fee is higher than zero)? I know there is an RPC command in bitcoin core testmempoolaccept but this will also check if all inputs are available to be spent in the mempool/blockchain and I want to test a transaction that is a child to a parent transaction that has not yet been broadcasted.
The signed transaction instance could have the scriptPubKey of the used utxos stored as metadata (since it needs to know these to sign each input) and use the stored utxos to perform this validation - alternatively, the verification method could ask for the scriptPubKeys of the utxos as input. I was looking for some nice way to do this in python but was surprised how neglected this task is:
EDIT: converting to PSBT is not possible/easy so the last option I mentioned won't work. I have the transactions in serialized 'network' format (what you get from `bitcoin-cli getrawtransaction hex')
EDIT2: escalated to bitcoin stack exchange: https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/questions/96759/how-to-verify-if-a-transaction-is-correctly-signed
submitted by johnturtle to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Blockchain tutorial 1: Binary, decimal and hexadecimal numbers BITCOIN HACK BLOCKCHAIN 2020 What is Bitcoin and Blockchain Free Bitcoin Hack Blockchain unconfirmed transaction hack script 100% working updated june 2020 BITCOIN HACK BLOCKCHAIN 2020

The Formatting Layer. incentivized to provide costly amounts of electricity to power third-party receipt services for any transaction on the Bitcoin blockchain.²⁴ As a result, parties could If you have been paying attention to bitcoin at all lately, you may have noticed a lot of talk going on about ‘forks’. Not like the kind you would find on a table, on a blockchain, a fork is a How do I move my Bitcoin Core data file. Safely exit Bitcoin Core (bitcoin-qt|bitcoind). Make a new secure backup copy of your wallet.dat.; Move you entire .bitcoin folder to the new location, except for bitcoin.conf which you must leave where it is in the existing .bitcoin folder. Edit bitcoin.conf to add datadir={full path to new .bitcoin folder}.; Start Bitcoin Core and check properly that This Course is from edX, scroll down and click “read more” for original link. Developed by Blockchain at Berkeley and faculty from UC Berkeley’s premier Computer Science department, this course presents Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies as the motivation for blockchain technologies, and provides a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the fundamental concepts of the crypto space with a Bitcoin relies on a public ledger typically known as the 'blockchain', recording the transfer of Bitcoin from one anonymous user to another. Ethereum . Any cryptocurrency that isn’t Bitcoin is known as an 'altcoin', and Ether may be the biggest altcoin out there. It’s the cryptocurrency of the Ethereum network, launched in 2015, and in many

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Blockchain tutorial 1: Binary, decimal and hexadecimal numbers

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