Les bases du trading de devises - dubaifx.net

Spéculer avec succès sur le FOREX : Pour se lancer dans le trépidant monde du trading de devises ~ Philippe Lhermie, François Héritier

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Trading De Devises

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[OC] The Chicago Bulls rebuild imploded again this year. How can they pick up the pieces and make it better next time?

As we continue to wait for real basketball to happen (or not?), it may be a good time to monitor teams that will definitely be missing out on all the playoff bubble hijinks.
Here's a look at the CHICAGO BULLS, with a special shoutout to true Bulls' fans like celsius_two_3_two for helping me review the content.
PART ONE: From Playoff Challenger to Challenger space shuttle
Like any proper degenerate, I like to make a few Las Vegas "oveunder" bets before the season (note: don't try it at home, it's usually a waste of time and money.)
Still, a few win totals jumped out at me. Among them: the Chicago Bulls, oveunder 33.5 wins.
Now, the logical move may have been to pound the "under" here. After all, this was a team coming off two seasons with 27-55 and 22-60 records. However, I couldn't help but overthink this one. Sure, the Bulls had a very bad 2018-19 season (highlighted by Fred Hoiberg getting fired and Drill Sergeant Jim Boylen taking over). At the same time, they played better in the second half of the season. Boylen (douche or not) would presumably keep improving their defense. Moreover, Boylen and the front office were on shaky ground in terms of their job security, which usually motivates an organization to push forward and win as much as possible.
The front office clearly had that in mind as well, signing Tomas Satoransky and Thaddeus Young to sizable $10M+ contracts. Neither are great players, or perhaps even good players, but they're solid and reliable veterans whom the team could immediately plug into a rotation. These Bulls felt deep, balanced, and perhaps ready to strike. After all, star Zach LaVine would be set to enter Year 6 in the league. Otto Porter would be entering Year 7. Some of their other "young" pieces weren't that young; for example, Kris Dunn and Denzel Valentine are both 26 right now.
Overall, this felt like a recipe for success. Or at least, semi-success. The Bulls were ready to take a jump. Making the playoffs may have been unrealistic, but 35-38 wins felt doable. "OVER" it is!
Flash forward nearly a year later, and I've got so much egg on my face that vegans won't even talk to me anymore. Turns out, these "new Bulls" were the "same ol' Bulls." They'll end the season with a 22-43 record, which would have put them on pace for 27.8 wins over 82 games, well under the 33.5 set by Vegas.
So what went wrong? How did this potential darkhorse run so far off the rails that it needed to get shot and turned to glue? Let's take a closer look.
PART TWO: Missing Otto Porter III + D
One of the major reasons the Chicago Bulls disappointed in 2019-20 was injuries. Center Wendell Carter missed time, and Otto Porter III barely played due to lingering hip injuries. He appeared in 14 games, and only drew 9 starts (averaging 23 minutes per game.)
On the surface, Porter shouldn't feel like a huge loss. After all, this is a player who's never averaged as much as 15 PPG in any season in his career and has never sniffed an All-Star team.
That said, the loss of Porter had a trickle down effect that hurt the team in numerous ways.
Offensively, Porter is a low-usage player who's about as efficient as anyone in the league. For his career, he shoots over 40% from three (40.4%). Better yet, he's only averaged 0.8 turnovers per game (1.1 TO per 36 minutes.) He's what you'd call a role player / assassin. He gets in, hits his target, and slips out without being noticed. Porter actually has a little more versatility to his offensive game than the average catch-and-shoot player (he can take you down on the block, for example), but most often, he's used as a spacer and he thrives in that regard. Without Porter's shooting, the Chicago Bulls' offense looked even more sluggish than usual. Their offensive rating ranked 27th out of the 30 teams in the league.
Porter's loss also showed up in other ways. Porter's not a great defender -- he's probably "above average" -- but that's still an asset to have in your lineup. He's a savvy player who's usually locked in defensively, despite one infamous Shaqtin' A Fool moment. He also has good size and length for his position at 6'8" with a 7'1" wingspan.
That size is a key element to this discussion. Porter has "plus" size as a small forward. In his absence, the Bulls struggled to fill that void with the same. They ended up shifting Zach LaVine (6'6", 6'8" wingspan) over to small forward quite a bit. LaVine played 67% of his minutes at SF this past season according to basketball-reference. You can take those positional play-by-plays with a grain of salt because it's not easy to track and label, but that's still a notable difference in terms of the roster composition. The Bulls were smaller than average at SF, and smaller than average at SG with rookie Coby White (6'4", 6'5" wingspan) playing the majority of his minutes there.
The natural follow up to this may be: so what? Even with those size limitations, Jim Boylen's Bulls still finished with the 14th best defense (up from 25 last year.) However, the lack of size on the wings helped contribute to the Bulls' problems on the glass. They finished 30th (out of 30 teams) in total defensive rebounds, and 28th in rebounding differential (-3.6 per game). Using rebounding totals isn't always the best metric to use because bad teams miss more shots (and thus allow their opponents more rebounds). However, if you dig deeper, the numbers still aren't pretty. The Bulls' grabbed 75.6% of their potential defensive rebounds -- 5th worst in the league. Overall, they grabbed 47.9% of all potential rebounds -- 2nd worst in the league. "Rebounds" may be not be an en vogue stat in general, but it's a weakness that still hurt the team at the margins. When you're a mid-level team, those extra few possessions per game could mean the difference between a win and a loss.
The good news? Porter will likely be back and healthy next season. The bad news? He's not cheap. He'll almost certainly pick up his oversized $28M player option. In another circumstance, he may try to rip it up and renegotiate a long-term deal with the Bulls or another team instead, but the murkiness around the cap and around his health makes that too difficult to imagine. Barring a trade, he'll be back with the Bulls next year, and will help the team win a few more games.
PART THREE: Misusing their offensive weapons
The Chicago Bulls are a young team, built around young stars like Zach LaVine and Lauri Markkanen. Both LaVine and Markkanen have some limitations overall, but they're both gifted offensive players. So given that, how is it that the team only finished 27th in offensive efficiency?
In terms of the national media, a lot of the blame tends to fall on Zach LaVine. After some inefficient play early on in his career, the narrative has stuck that LaVine is an "empty calorie" or "volume" scorer. However, the results on the court don't really justify that anymore. Sure, LaVine shoots a lot, but he doesn't take as many bad shots as you may expect. He takes 8.1 threes per game (and makes an above-average 38%). He takes 5.6 free throw attempts per game (making 82% for his career.) Overall, that's a winning formula. LaVine's efficiency and true shooting is above league-average, no small feat for a player averaging 25.5 points per game this year. You'd like to see him hammer his way to the line even more, but he's not the problem for this team (offensively.)
Meanwhile, Markkanen has some work to do. For a 7-footer, he's a gifted shooter. He shot 42.3% from three in college (and even flirted with 50% early in the season.) He carried that success over to the NBA for his first two years, netting over 36% from three each year. His results at the free throw line (84% then 87% as a second-year player) illustrated his potential to keep improving from there. 7-footers tend to get labeled as "stretch bigs" if they can get anywhere over 30% from three; Markkanen has the potential to get closer to 40%.
However, that leap didn't happen in Year 3. Markkanen sagged to 34.4% from three, and "only" 82.4% from the free-throw line. But those percentages aren't what bothers me. Percentages will go up and down over smaller sample sizes like that. What's more concerning is how Markkanen's role shrunk offensively. After averaging 15.3 field goal attempts last season, he slipped down to 11.8 attempts this season per game. Even if you account for a few less minutes, he dropped from 17 FGA to 14 FGA in terms of "per 36" numbers.
As mentioned, Markkanen is an offensive player. He's a shooter. I'm no coaching genius (and neither is Jim Boylen apparently), but I'd encourage a shooter to SHOOT. Because if Markkanen isn't a focal point of your offensive attack, then he's not doing much good for your team. He's not a good defender -- he's not a good rebounder. This is like the Justice League sending Aquaman off to the find evil aliens in the desert; we're misusing his talents here, people.
Practically speaking, the next Bulls' coach needs to rethink the approach with Markkanen. Personally, I believe he has more in the tank offensively than he's been allowed to show so far. Maybe he's not Dirk Nowtizki, but he's still an extraordinary talent as a shooter for his size; I'd make a point of funneling him the ball. And if the problem is that he's getting marginalized by ball-dominant LaVine, then Markkanen should come off the bench as a 6th man scorer instead. He needs to be an offensive priority whenever he's in the game. And consequently, a better offensive philosophy and system needs to be installed in order to allow that to happen.
PART FOUR: Natural growing pains
When the Chicago Bulls' playoff chances slipped away, Jim Boylen and the front office finally unleashed their rookie, Coby White.
White took advantage of that greenlight and turned up the gas as a scorer. He'll end the season with a modest 13.2 points per game, but that undersells his impact as a scorer. Per 36 minutes, he averaged 18.5 points per game. That trended upwards over the course of the season as well. White averaged over 20 points per game in February and March (albeit over a limited 14 game size.) If White can do that as a 20-year-old rookie, then it's fair to suggest that he could be routinely scoring over 20 PPG in his prime.
While Coby White has some obvious virtues -- highlighted by his quickness and his cool hair -- there are some natural concerns and growing pains that he showed. He scored, but he didn't necessarily do that with efficiency. He shot only 39.4% from the field, and netted only a 50.6 true shooting percentage that's well below the league average.
Defensively, White also struggled. Playing "up" at SG for 71% of his minutes (and even at SF for 17%!), White's limited size and limited experience showed. ESPN's real/plus minus metric graded him as -1.9 impact per 100 possessions. If you wanted to count White as a point guard, that would rank 89th best (out of 94 qualifiers.) If you envision him as a shooting guard, that would rank 134th (out of 137 qualifiers.)
That debate -- is Coby White a point guard or shooting guard? -- is an important one. Sure, we're in an era of "position-less" basketball to some extent, but players still have certain roles offensively and certain assignments defensively. White's limited size and length (6'5" wingspan) projects best as a point guard. However, he's more of a scorer than a natural distributor. He only averaged 3.8 assists per 36 minutes this season, not far removed from the 5.2 assists per 36 minutes he averaged back in college at UNC. His playmaking can improve, but he's more of an attack dog by nature.
This combination of strengths and weaknesses makes you wonder about the long-term fit next to Zach LaVine. If the Bulls' long-term plan is to play White at SG and LaVine at SF, then they're always going to be behind the eight-ball in terms of length and rebounding (especially with Lauri Markkanen at the 4.) If their plan is to start White as a point guard, then they're going to have to rely on LaVine to be more of a lead facilitator, or on the entire team to adopt more of a ball-moving offense 1-5.
Most realistically, White projects best as a super-scorer off the bench, a la Lou Williams. To excel in that role, he'll need to continue to draw more free throws (he was at only 2.0 FTA per game as a rookie), but the potential is there to improve his shot selection and become a big-time scorer. Staggering White and LaVine would also allow them to be aggressive as scorers without stepping on each other's toes.
PART FIVE: Done with Dunn?
The other reason that it'll be important for the new Bulls' coach and front office to devise a long-term plan for Coby White is because it will affect other decisions on the roster. Among them: the fate of Kris Dunn.
Like Coby White, Dunn has some extreme strengths and weaknesses -- they just happen to be in opposite order. He EXCELS defensively. He has a big frame (6'9" wingspan) and natural instincts on that end. He nabbed 2.0 steals this season in only 24.9 minutes of action. A lot of times, "steals" can be misleading because they amount to gambling. For Dunn, it's more reflective of his actual talent. He has extremely quick hands; he could have made a lot of money as a gunslinger back in the Old West. In some ways, he reminds you of Andre Iguodala on the ball defensively, combining length, strength, and savvy.
The rest of Dunn's game is a mixed bag. He's not a bad distributor (averaging 6.0 assists in both 2017-18 and 2018-19), but he's a poor shooter. He's also had injury issues flare up over the course of his career. As mentioned, he's already 26 years old, so it's unrealistic to expect him to become a wholly different player in the next few years. With Kris Dunn, you mostly know what you're getting to get. So the question is: do you want it or not?
The Bulls will have to make that choice this offseason, as Dunn enters his (restricted) free agency. There's a chance that COVID will infect the cap and allow them to retain him on his one-year qualified offer of $7M. Alternatively, there's a chance that another team will swoop him and sign him to an offer sheet. He'd make some sense for a team like the Detroit Pistons, who could invest in him as an heir apparent to Derrick Rose at PG. If a team like that offers Dunn a deal in the 3 year, $8-10M per year range, will the Bulls match it? TBD.
Again, a lot depends on their views regarding Coby White. If they envision White as a future starter at PG, then there's less of a need for Kris Dunn. The Bulls would be able to start White at PG as soon as next year, with Tomas Satoransky as a combo guard off the bench and Ryan Arcidiacono serving as a third point guard and insurance policy. If the team envisions Coby White as a SG (or combo guard off the bench) then there's more of a need for Kris Dunn to platoon with Satoransky as a lead guard.
This game of musical chairs may be getting more crowded, because there's also another element at play: yet-another lottery pick.
PART SIX: Drafting some Help
Currently, the Chicago Bulls are slated in the # 7 position in terms of the NBA Draft order. They have a 9% chance of moving up to # 1, and a 32% chance of moving into the top 4. If they can make that leap, then that would mean adding another potential star to the fold. It's not a strong draft by any stretch, but SG Anthony Edwards (Georgia) and C James Wiseman (Memphis) have the potential to be good starters. If they can land someone like that, you ignore "fit", take the potential stud, and work out the rest later.
More likely, the Bulls will be picking in that 7-8 range. That's still a good pick, of course, but not one that should cause you to throw the baby out with the bath water and ignore the composition and needs of your team.
Again, this is why the "Do the Bulls need a PG?" question becomes so critical. This is a poor draft, but it's strongest in terms of its point guard depth. According to ESPN's draft experts, 5 of the top 13 prospects are point guards (LaMelo Ball, Tyrese Haliburton, Killian Hayes, R.J. Hampton, Cole Anthony). A few of those -- namely Hayes and Anthony -- are "pure" point guards who don't have enough size to switch around and play minutes at the 2.
Among the crop that's likely to be available around pick 7, here are some potential fits.
PG TYRESE HALIBURTON, IOWA STATE (# 8 on espn). Haliburton is one of the easiest "fits" for the Bulls and for basically every team, because he offers a versatile set of skills. He's technically a point guard (averaging 15.2 points and 6.5 assists last year) and can capably fill that role. Better still, he can be effectively off the ball. His three-point shot looks a little wonky, but he converts it well, hitting 42.6% of his threes in college. Defensively he's got good size (6'5" with a 6'10" wingspan) and instincts (2.5 steals, 1.3 fouls last year). In a sense, Haliburton can be a "3 + D" point guard that plays alongside a ball-dominant player, be it Zach LaVine or Coby White. If the team drafts him, you figure it'd be with the intention of using him as an upgrade on Dunn (slightly worse defense but better offense.)
SG DEVIN VASSELL, FLORIDA STATE (# 16 on espn). Like Haliburton, Devin Vassell is another player who could fit well on virtually every team because of his 3+D potential. He's hit 41.7% of his threes in his two years at FSU with a good-looking form that's aided by good size for his position and a higher release than Haliburton. Right now, Vassell is listed around 6'6" with an estimated 6'10" wingspan, but he looks bigger than that to my eye. That's crucial because it would allow him to play both SG and SF and draw some different assignments defensively. I also like Vassell's personality off the court; he seems like a good kid that should continue to improve. Like Haliburton, Vassell is the type of player that should easily into a lineup with LaVine and/or White.
SF DENI AVDIJA, ISRAEL (# 5 on espn). I'm not going to pretend to have as much confidence in my projection of Avdija, who's played in the international youth circuit and has been a rising star with Maccabi Tel Aviv. Based on what I do know, he could be an intriguing boom/bust pick around # 7. He's a big forward (6'9") who can convert inside, and better yet, has a real knack for playmaking. The Bulls' young stars -- Zach LaVine, Coby White, Lauri Markkanen -- are all better scorers than passers right now, so perhaps Avdija can operate as a de facto point forward and help the offense click into place. Right now, his shooting results have been shaky though, so he's not someone you can just throw out there and tell to stand in the corner as a 3+D option. If you take him, you need an actual plan to highlight his skill set. The Bulls' top exec Arturas Karnisovas is from Lithuania originally, so you presume that he'd have no qualms about selecting an European like Avdija (whose dad is Serbian) if need be. Of course, that logic didn't quite work out for Sacramento GM Vlade Divac and Luka Doncic.
SHAKIER FITS. Alternatively, there are some players in the Bulls' draft range that may not be ideal fits. As mentioned, Killian Hayes and Cole Anthony are more of traditional ball-dominant point guards; I don't love the idea of that next to Coby White and Zach LaVine. I'd also be wary of Dayton's PF Obi Toppin. Toppin has strong scoring potential with a decent shot and good athleticism inside. That said, he's a little stiff in the hips defensively, and may duplicate Lauri Markkanen in that regard.
PART SEVEN: Buh-Buh Boylen
One of the Chicago Bulls' biggest decisions will be among their first. Technically, the new front office has not fired coach Jim Boylen yet, but it appears that his clock is ticking on that decision. It's only a matter of time.
Candidly, Boylen gets too harsh of a rap from national media and fans. He's not a complete asshat. He's had success as a defensive assistant in the past, and did help the Bulls' defense improve some over the past few years. He'd be a fine assistant coach somewhere in that limited capacity.
However, he does seem woefully out of his depth as a head coach. He's never had success in that role before, and he didn't have any now. His offensive system is virtually nonexistent, and his attitude is boarish. Usually those "Drill Sergeant" coaches get a short-term year or two of improvement from a young team, but he couldn't even do that. We need to pull him out of there before there's a full-on Full Metal Jacket rebellion here.
Looking ahead, the Bulls need to pick a coach that can get the team back on track, especially in terms of their offensive philosophy. That said, the Bulls have to be careful not to "zigzag" too much in their coaching hires. They went from Tom Thibodeau (the gruff, defensive-heavy coach) to the Anti-Thibodeau in Fred Hoiberg (likable, low-key former player), and then jumped on the seesaw again with the complete opposite in Boylen. There's always a tendency to go for the opposite of your last coach, but presumably there's a happy medium in between these two poles. Goldilocks was happy to find something "just right," so Karnisovas should be as well.
According to media reports, Ime Udoka is a top candidate, and would be a natural fit. While Udoka doesn't have head coaching experience yet, he's about as "ready" as any first-time coach would be. He's a former player, and a long-time assistant under Gregg Popovich in San Antonio (and now has worked the last year in Philadelphia.) The Spurs' philosophy is an ideal template for the Bulls to use, both in terms of their offensive ball movement and their locker room culture.
I'd also recommend Kenny Atkinson as a viable candidate. He didn't mesh with the new superstars in Brooklyn, but he'd done a great job prior to that in terms of rebuilding a broken Brooklyn team. He specializes in pace and space offense, and player development. That sounds ideal for this team right now.
There are a few other candidates out there that would be worth interviews (Chris Finch, Wes Unseld Jr., Chris Fleming, Nate Tibbetts, Alex Jensen, Dave Joerger, etc) but Udoka and Atkinson represent a very solid top two. Hiring either of them would be a great first step for this new administration.
TL;DR
The Chicago Bulls' "breakout" didn't happen; instead, they broke down. However, the foundation isn't bad here. If the new front office wants to push for the playoffs next year (manifested by keeping Otto Porter and continuing to play veterans) then it's not unrealistic that they can get up to 35-40 wins with better health and a better offensive system. Conversely, the team may decide they're further away than that, and take a step back to collect their bearings.
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What you can do this summer (and how covid might impact admissions) - a guide by Novembrr, former Berkeley & UChicago reader

Note: I began writing this guide before George Floyd’s murder. I vacillated for a long time regarding posting this guide, as it feels privileged to worry about gaining acceptance to elite universities when there are disenfranchised groups of people who don’t have the ability to study, work, and live freely. But I ultimately decided to share this with you guys in the hopes that some would find it helpful.
Covid has completely derailed many of your plans; from summer programs being cancelled to research labs closing to internships being nixed, many of you are looking at a long summer with nothing to do.
And that’s okay. Just as universities are trying to give students grace in what they’re able/unable to achieve in a covid-19 world, extend that grace to yourself. People are dying and, tragically, death might hit close to home for some of you. People are losing their jobs and, again, your family might be impacted. It’s estimated that 1 in 5 children are going hungry during this time; you might be more worried about putting food on your table than improving your resume. You might be trapped in an unsafe, unhealthy environment without the support systems you once had. Social distancing and sheltering in place are impacting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of people worldwide. Focus first on what really matters: the mental, emotional, physical, and financial health of you and your loved ones.
But many of you are wondering how covid-19 might impact your college admissions process, and I am, too. Truthfully, no one knows; college administrators are scrambling to make decisions regarding online vs in-person classes this fall, and admissions officers are trying to determine how to make the admissions process simultaneously equitable/accessible and on-par with the academic caliber of previous classes. Lee Coffin, Vice Provost for Enrollment and Dean of Admissions and Financial Aid at Dartmouth College, said in a recent Harvard Graduate School of Education webinar: “Students are coming into next year’s application process with less information than they might have had, [and] different kinds of data points that frame their academic record. We don’t have all the answers today as to what [the college admissions process this fall] might look like.” He went on to add: “As I try to anticipate the [class of] 2025 reading cycle... how do we start to think and reimagine a college assessment if the high schools are largely giving pass/fail grades right now? If that happens to continue into the fall, a transcript as we know it will look really differently... If you combine that with a lack of testing, we’ve removed a lot of data from what would have typically been our assessment.”
Pass/fail vs letter grades
I want to interrupt my train of thought to address whether you should take letter grades or choose pass/fail, if given the option. Multiple students have told me that their GPA and/or class rank hinges on them choosing pass/fail, even though they’ve earned all As this semester. I would not choose pass/fail to game the system; choose pass/fail (if given the option) if your grades were impacted during this turbulent time. If your grades were on par with your past performance, I’d stick to letter grades. Alongside letters of recommendation, counselors are asked to evaluate students on a few criteria, one of which is character. I worry that students’ characters will be called into question, or that a counselor might call you a “grade grubber” in their letter of recommendation. In contrast, they can talk about your ethical decision to take letter grades, and how you seem to truly love learning solely for the sake of learning (not for a grade or an accolade)—a quality, in my experience, that universities love. Alternatively, if your school is mandating that everyone go pass/fail, and you would have earned stellar grades, ask your counselor to address that fact in your letter of rec.
Ok, back to regular programming.
How might colleges evaluate your achievements?
The question on everyone’s mind lately: How will universities evaluate applicants without test scores and with pass/fail grades? Standardized tests were already flawed—they disadvantaged students from marginalized backgrounds, for instance—but universities clung to them as a way to, in their minds, even the playing field. It’s hard to compare students from, say, an under-resourced rural public school in Iowa to an abundantly-resourced private school in Massachusetts, and so universities try to avoid doing so by evaluating students within “context”: the opportunities of their family, school, and community (i.e., if your high school doesn’t offer AP Calculus BC, you won’t be compared to peers in the high school two towns over who all take BC as freshmen; if your family lives in poverty, your achievements might look different than those of a student from an uber-wealthy community; and so on). I believe that grace has to be extended to individuals impacted by covid-19, as well; if circumstances of covid-19 (your illness, a family member’s illness, a parent’s undeunemployment, lack of access to standardized testing, online courses, etc.) impact your achievements, I cannot imagine an admissions office would not extend leniency.
But at the nation’s most selective universities, everyone cannot be given a pass on everything. So I believe now, more than ever, qualitative components of an application may be heavily weighted in the admissions processes of the nation’s most selective universities.
The webinar’s host, Richard Weissbourd, a Harvard senior lecturer and leader of the Turning the Tide national effort to rethink college admissions, added his opinion: “It seems to me that if you are putting less weight on the SAT, then this is a time where you really can pay attention to the social and emotional strengths—like self awareness, social awareness, self regulation, curiosity, empathy—that we know are so strongly predictive of doing well and doing good in college and beyond.”
So where do you show these qualities? In your letters of recommendation, essays, and extracurriculars.
Getting stellar letters of recommendation
I recommend you seek out recommenders ASAP, as they might need even more time than usual to write your recommendations. Dartmouth’s Dean Coffin, in a 2017 alumni magazine article, said: “In combination with the qualitative data, the teacher recommendations that talk about grit and focus, determination and optimism, as well as the student’s own work and the essays—that’s where it all knits together and you say, ‘This is someone who’s primed for success.’” Don’t just have your teachers rehash your resume; what anecdotes can they provide that will offer detailed insight into your best qualities?
Alongside your teacher letter of recommendations in the Common App, teachers are asked to evaluate your:
  • Academic achievements
  • Intellectual promise
  • Quality of writing
  • Creative, original thought
  • Productive class discussion
  • Respect accorded by faculty
  • Disciplined work habits
  • Maturity
  • Motivation
  • Leadership
  • Integrity
  • Reaction to setbacks
  • Concern for others
  • Self confidence
  • Initiative, independence
  • And overall characteristics
Consider subtly addressing some of these qualities in a letter to your recommender. I recommend reading this Reddit post by u/LRFE. One point where we disagree: I don’t recommend you send your resume to your teachers, unless they ask for it; in my experience, resumes are helpful for counselors so they can put all your achievements into context. However, some teachers erroneously spend more time talking about your extracurricular achievements than your personal qualities and performance in class; your resume will be detailed in your activities list and, most likely, your essays. Your objective personal qualities won’t be detailed anywhere, unless your recommenders provide that insight. Instead of saying:
“Marissa is a talented young lady! Not only does she frequently solo on the saxophone in jazz band, but she earned first place at the DECA regionals competition, is captain of the varsity tennis team, volunteers for National Honors Society, and earned silver in the United States of America Computing Olympiad. Quite the busy bee!”
Your teacher could say:
“Marissa is an incredibly introspective and thought-provoking young person. In a class discussion about The Great Gatsby, she challenged her classmates to reflect on their own privilege. She made reference to current events and incorporated books she read in AP US History (The Autobiography of Malcolm X, The Second Sex). What’s more, she artfully mediated what could have been a contentious discussion between her politically-divided classmates.”
Do you see how the latter example would better say to universities “this student is primed for success”? And, remember, you don’t have to hope that your teacher will write with such detail—you can write them a letter and include anecdotes to remind them of your best moments in class.
Doing something impactful this summer
And as for extracurriculars, it would be great to do something this summer. But what? That’s the million dollar question, but you don’t need a million dollars to do something this summer that will be emotionally or intellectually rewarding and beneficial for your college applications (+ success in college).
  • Build a computer
  • Tinker (take apart and rebuild electronics, “hack” electronics to improve them, rig up devices that solve everyday problems, etc.)
  • Draw/create artwork
  • Lead a social justice initiative (rally teens to protest; provide masks, snacks and water to protesters; create a “voices of our community” newsletter to highlight marginalized perspectives; and so much more)
  • Create birdhouses and offer to install them in neighbors’ yards
  • Conduct science experiments (and/or create science kits, record instructions, and share them with kids in your neighborhood)
  • Offer virtual babysitting, tutoring, language teaching, or music lessons
  • Grocery shop/run errands for at-risk members of your community
  • Build an app that solves a need in your community, like alerting SNAP recipients when SNAP-eligible food is in stock at their local grocery store
  • Start a lawn mowing business
  • Run the social media for a small business floundering in this economic environment
  • Create the website or build an online store for a small business that used to sell only in person
  • Translate important public health information, create a database of healthcare/public resources, or offer to virtually translate conversations with doctors for non-native-speaking members of your community
  • Offer your help negotiating smaller fees for services (like internet/tv) for low-income families
  • Fundraise to buy internet/hotspots/computers for low-income students who are otherwise unable to learn online
  • Create fun learning packets for students and drop them off in “subscribers” mailboxes
  • Do a data visualization project on covid-19 for your community
  • Take online courses via Coursera, EdX, MIT OpenCourseWare, Udemy, Udacity, Lynda.com, Khan Academy, etc.
  • Listen to podcasts associated with your intended major, like this one from MIT
  • Foster or transport shelter animals
  • Foster the pets of those who have been hospitalized
  • Walk the pets of those who are at-risk and cannot be out and about in the community
  • Drive people to routine hospital appointments/work/necessary errands who otherwise would be forced to take public transit
  • Create virtual mental health office hours, where classmates can call in or submit anonymous questions, and where you can host weekly guest professionals to answer those questions
  • Start a themed book club with friends (perhaps related to your major)
  • Fundraise to purchase video cameras for NICUs, labor & delivery, and covid-19 wards where loved ones cannot be present in the hospital
  • Ask to help design the online curriculum for a favorite teacher (even better if related to your intended major)
  • Edit the resumes of recently-unemployed community members
  • Write stories, poetry, a news/politics blog
  • Sew masks and distribute to those in need
  • Propose an independent research project and ask a professor to be your mentor
  • And tons of ideas that I haven’t discovered (you guys constantly amaze me with your ingenuity)
So you want to do research…
It was always difficult for high schoolers to earn coveted spots in research labs, and covid-19 offers even more challenges, with the suspension of many labs. Says Polly Fordyce, an assistant professor of bioengineering and genetics at Stanford, covid-19 is “really destructive. Some people were about to do the last experiment they needed for a paper, or an experiment that would have given them months of data to analyze. And now they’re stalled.” Instead, her colleagues are “thinking creatively about existing data sets we can analyze, reading more papers… doing a paper on data that they weren’t going to write up.”
I want you to think just as creatively. Where, in the past, I have helped many of my students gain research internships at highly-selective universities, don’t count on doing so this summer. Instead, consider devising your own research project—like Fordyce said, using existing data sets and papers—and ask a professor, PhD student, or professional to mentor you.
I’m going to give you some ideas on topics you could analyze. I urge you not to run with one of these projects, because who knows how many other kids read this post and likewise pick the same project. Harvard will likely catch on if 500 kids all have the same research project… Instead, find the subject most closely linked to your interest for some inspiration, reflect on your unique interests, and spend a few days harvesting the internet for some ideas. If you’re truly stuck and need some help, reach out for more information regarding how I work 1-on-1 with students.
So without further ado…
Biology/Public Health
  • Cancer (under)diagnosis in queeobese/minority populations (and the healthcare biases that lead to this issue)
  • How cancer diagnoses are impacted by covid-19 (like this, for instance)
  • The cultural norms that support and the efforts to end genital mutilation worldwide
  • The inhalation of Lysol and the spread of misinformation in public health crises (covid-19, AIDS)
  • The effect of Yelp reviews on prospective patients’ selection of healthcare providers
  • Best approaches to treating individuals with memory loss/eating disorders/etc.
  • Pharmaceuticals’ roles in the opioid epidemic
Business/Economics
  • The rise of the female workforce during WWII, and how covid-19 is impacting female workers
  • How businesses’ responses to covid-19 and the Black Lives Matters movement impact their (inter)national reputations
  • The challenges of being male, female, trans, or nonbinary in workplaces dominated by individuals with different gender identities
  • A history of black entrepreneurship
  • Predicted cost impacts of a year without college football for U.S. universities
NOTE: Instead of conducting research, consider pursuing a hands-on project, such as assisting a small business in their social media strategy; starting your own small business or product; or designing a mock product, website, and advertising campaign.
Classics
  • Gender and sexuality in Ancient Rome
  • The use of a particular literary device across an author’s body of work
  • History of disease in Roman antiquity
Computer Science
  • How Bay Area tech giants succeed/fail in hiring and supporting minority engineers
  • The effects of avatars’ identities in video games on players’ personal identities in real life
  • Various approaches to introducing children to computer science
NOTE: You can also use computer science tools to analyze a topic in another field—such as using AI to predict a disease.
Cultural Studies/Ethnic Studies
  • Why Black Americans are dying from covid-19 at greater rates
  • Racial disparity in the rate of police killings
  • The societal stereotyping of ethnic first names
  • The challenges refugees face before, during, and after immigration
  • A specific culture’s identity and representation in film
Data Science
There are tons of opportunities here; pick a project that interests you and analyze the data associated with it. Don’t have any data? Check out these sites or reach out to your local librarian for help. Really dig into the data to pose questions, draw conclusions, and pursue a data visualization project.
Design
  • The challenges of living in high-density housing during social distancing
  • How highways bifurcated white and black America
Education
  • Minorities’ pursuit of STEM majors in predominantly white vs historically black colleges and universities
  • The school-to-prison pipeline
  • Menstruation as a barrier to education in India
  • Sex education’s impact on underage pregnancies
Engineering
NOTE: Consider doing something hands on, like building a drone, robot, or computer; designing a bridge; or building an app or device. Here are some additional ideas from Southern Methodist University and ElProCus. Stanford Alumni Magazine just featured a “multitalented tinkerer”, and you can see some of his projects on [YouTube](alu.ms/akshay).
English Literature
  • Analysis of an author’s use of a literary device across their body of work
  • How spouse/sibling authors draw upon different/similar inspirations (The Brontë Sisters, Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre, etc.)
  • Analysis of a particular style of writing within books of a certain genre
  • How a book reflects society and beliefs of that time (how slavery is depicted, mental health stigma, etc.)
  • How a book/body of work represents an author’s beliefs (John Milton, John Updike, any other notably-religious Johns?)
  • The representation of a minority group in a genre (i.e., LGBTQ+ within graphic novels)
Environmental Science
  • How murder hornets and other invasive species have impacted indigenous species
  • Differences in the perception of global warming across various societies
  • Modern day impacts of Chernobyl, Fukushima, or other environmental disasters
  • Analysis of climate change policies in the Democratic debates
  • How a Supreme Court decision regarding a natural gas pipeline could impact the Appalachian Trail
Gender Studies
  • Violence against indigenous women and the inadequate response by communities/law enforcement
  • History of achievements of America’s first ladies
  • Gender inequality during stay-at-home orders
  • Overcoming the gender gap in STEM
History
  • The response to the 1918 Spanish Flu and similarities/differences between today’s response to covid-19
  • A history of un- and under-employment in America
  • How businesses pivot during times of crisis (WWII, covid-19, etc.)
NOTE: There are so many cool topics in history! Here’s a good place to start (though this list is U.S.-centric)
Journalism/Media Studies
  • Partisanship in American media organizations
  • Freedom of the press in [insert country of choice here]
  • The rise and fall of the American newspaper
Music
  • Jazz’s influence on community in Harlem
  • Your favorite musical artist’s influence on a genre
  • What various cultures’ earliest musical artifacts showcase about those societies
Philosophy
Find a cool philosophephilosophy and analyze the person/idea within their time period
Political Science/Law
  • The impacts of gerrymandering on marginalized communities
  • The impacts of social media on voter turnout and behaviors
  • The corrupt misuse of NGO funds in Third World Countries
  • A compare and contrast between two leaders’ approaches to international trade
  • Legal precedence foagainst stay-at-home orders, curfews on protestors, etc.
  • Freedom to/freedom from: the different approaches to personal liberties in various democratic societies
Psychology
  • Unemployment’s impact on mental health crises during various economic downturns
  • Mental health risks of social isolation
  • Building empathy across political/racial divides
  • The impact of a belief in fixed vs malleable intelligence on children’s achievements
In order to get a research internship off the ground, you must be willing to put in the time and effort to devise a topic in the first place. This is not the sort of summer activity that is going to be handed to you, but it will be so rewarding to drive the project from start to finish (I promise). And if my promise doesn’t come true and you hit tons of speed bumps, well hey, at least you’ll have a great response to any prompts that ask you to address your greatest challenge. ;)
How to approach mentors
You can either organically devise a project you would love to pursue, or first poke around prospective departments at your dream university to see what they’re doing, before creating a spinoff project from one of their research labs. Either way, do some research into who else in the world is doing similar stuff. Remember, it doesn’t have to be a professor—it could be a principal investigator, PhD student, postdoc, or even someone at a company/non-profit). Find their email and reach out to them, outlining something such as the following:
  • What you love about their work/research (I like to start with sincere flattery)
  • How their work/research relates to your interests/experiences
  • Who you are and what research you are conducting this summer (be specific—not “I plan to conduct economics research this summer. Got any ideas?”)
  • Your first ask: Can they recommend books, data, journal articles, etc. to point you in the right direction? (Again, be specific—“know of any bio journals?” is not going to lead to mentors begging to mentor you)
  • Your second ask: Are they or anyone they know willing to mentor you in pursuing this project? You would love occasional guidance on your sources, data, conclusions, paper, etc.
  • A sincere thanks for their time
Keep it short but detailed! And add a catchy subject line to cut through their inbox.
Remember: They don’t owe you. They might not respond. You shouldn’t pester. You shouldn’t spam (multiple people with the same generic email and especially not multiple people in the same department at the same university). Consider reaching out to one or two people at different universities/companies/non-profits simultaneously; if you don’t get any responses after a week or so, consider tweaking your email and reaching out to one or two more individuals.
Shoot to have one to two mentors, focusing only on those who can help you maximize your learning experience and do good work.
What other questions do you have for how covid-19 might impact admissions? What other ideas do you have for summer activities? Happy to weigh in!
And, as a reminder, don’t stress about college if you have other stressors in your life that need your attention first. I personally realized last year, when facing a family emergency, that you shouldn’t fix your leaky faucet if your house is burning down. Put out the fire first, then turn your attention to college. I’m here for you if you need me!
submitted by novembrr to ApplyingToCollege [link] [comments]

Necromancer can't make a decision because he "doesn't have enough information" in DM's clue-filled fantasy mystery adventure; story's future is thusly shredded.

I mostly just need to write this out; it's been almost a week now and I'm still mad, but I don't know if I have a right to be. I need some outside opinions on the matter before I make a call that I can't take back.
I've been DMing this campaign for about a year now. I wish I could explain this without explaining massive amounts of backstory, but I can't. Sorry.
There are currently six players, but only one really matters for this story:
Necromancer - Evil, but goes out of his way to hide his evil and has set it up so his risen skeletons ostensibly look like just some strange cult that all wears robes and masks. He's an experienced gamer, and DMs his own campaign with us on the off weeks.
The others only get a brief mention to illustrate the party dynamic. Monk and Rogue never RP, and mostly twiddle their thumbs waiting for the next combat. Bard and Ranger are new to TTRPGs, and have very soft personalities that never get directly confrontational. Fighter is a wonderful RPer and an experienced DnD player, but last week was her first session with us; the only people in the group she knows are Bard and Necromancer.
So as you can see, since half the group doesn't care about the plot and the other half doesn't have the confidence/standing to dissent, Necromancer is de facto party leader. It's worked out ok so far, I guess, but it turned last week's session into a complete story clusterfuck and I don't know how I could have handled it any differently.
The very basic problem, I guess, is that I write fantasy-mysteries. That's just how I construct a story. I give the party clues, lots and lots of clues, in documents and events and conversations, and their job is to put it all together in order to make a big decision at the end of each adventure arc. There's usually three possible choices; two that are obvious and a hidden third one they could find if they put the clues together. At no point will the "wrong" choice result in anything stupid, like a TPK or a loss of equipment; basically, each choice has an immediate helpful effect (eliminating one or more of the problems they face at that very moment) and determines which world factions they make happy and which ones they piss off, which will only be relevant much further down the road.
The first arc was essentially a tutorial for how I put stories together. When they got to the end, and faced their first big choice, I had one of the NPCs basically give them the entire answer sheet, pointing out all the clues they'd gotten and putting them all together for them before they made their call.
I learned during this encounter that I needed more clues, and they needed to be more obvious, so I adapted that for this current arc. I'm going to give a rundown of the major clues I gave them so you have an idea of where I'm coming from and where they're coming from.
So to give the most basic TL;DR of the underlying plot possible, the party's little homebrew world is slowly sinking into Avernus. They've met a Master Librarian in the last adventure arc who filled them in on this problem; he can't tell them how long they have or why it's happening, but he's got some people on it and has been feeding the party leads.
Necromancer also gets leads of his own; he found, early on, a Tome of the Stilled Tongue, in which Vecna will sometimes write creepy messages to him at night. Vecna wants the world to be absorbed into Avernus, and is opposed to the Master Librarian, so Necromancer actually has a direct line into what the "bad guys" want to happen.
So we get to this arc. The party has been guarding a caravan of wagons that is going from the main trading hub city to a new Grand Temple in the mountains, where the theocratic government will have its new seat of power.
Lots of little clues are peppered into the trip. Travel travel travel, and they're now two days away from the temple.
Two nights before they're supposed to arrive, a messenger from the Master Librarian shows up and tells the party that the Master Librarian said, among other things, "The Dark One must live."
The same night, Vecna writes in the Stilled Tongue tome, among other things: "The Dark One must die.”
The next night, the caravan master pulls everyone together to give them a briefing about the dangers they might meet in the mountain passes. One of those is "rock trolls". He tells them that rock trolls are clever, unintelligent animals who are rare, almost never attack humans, and hunt in small family groups of 3-5, 7 tops. But they are territorial, so, watch out for thrown rocks.
The caravan gets to the top of the pass overlooking the valley the temple is in. As they're slowly traversing the long, steep switchback down the cliff with their wagons, rock trolls attack. DOZENS of them. The caravan is forced to abandon the carts, fleeing towards the temple city. As they run, more and more rock trolls pour over the ridge, until there's an army of hundreds of them! The NPCs are all panicked and baffled; they didn’t even know there were this many trolls in the mountains!
The city fires some warning trebuchet shots over the fleeing caravan's heads, causing the rock trolls to stop their charge and form up at the base of the switchback. A huge troll wearing a feathered headdress pushes out to the front and starts growling out something that sounds like speech. Comprehend Languages reveals that he's saying something about "cleansing this great evil from their lands, like their ancestors did long ago."
The caravan makes it through the city gates, and the whole town is getting ready for a fight. But before the party can get their bearings, there's a new problem: right before the attack began on the pass, three of the five heads of the theocracy (I’ll call them the Popes) had gone with a survey team into a cavern, newly revealed that morning thanks to construction on the temple. They believed it could be the final resting place of their founding saint... but now their lights are gone and they are no longer communicating with the surface!
The party is asked if they'll go into the cavern to find the Popes, so they can be present during the defense of the city. The party agrees.
Inside the cavern, they catch a glimpse of a Hideous Scary Monster, and meet a survivor of the engineering team who tells them that someone disturbed a skull and released the Horrible Monsters, which killed almost everyone. He leads them to a large open chamber where 20 troll skulls are set on pedestals (one pedestal is empty).
The party saw this exact same "evil containment spell" in use several sessions ago by a barbarian tribe, using the skulls of the barbarian shamen, just with many fewer skulls.
One of the Horrible Monsters, killed by the Popes, is here in the chamber as well, charred and beheaded. The party’s traveling scholar NPC muses aloud, "I wonder what would happen if I put this skull on the empty pedestal; maybe it could turn the spell back on!" This action was going to give the PCs another clue and do some other important stuff to make the party’s lives a little easier.
Before I go on, I'd like to note that my NPCs only exist to help out in combat and give clues. Most of the time, they're non-entities. So the fact that Scholar NPC speaks up here should be, by itself, a metagame clue.
Necromancer: "If you try I will straight up cut your arms off. We have no idea what could happen!"
Humph. Well, ok, I get it, I guess that's a valid in-character interpretation. I let it go, and after they fumble around for a bit, they decide to take a normal skull (Necromancer has a bunch of skeletons in his Bag of Holding) and put it on the pedestal.
I give them partial credit, and let this skull open up a line of communication to the entity this ritual was supposed to imprison; a pleasant, polite, but incredibly bored female spirit who claims to have been unjustly convicted in a biased troll court and has been stuck here for eons. She tells them how to get through the maze to the chamber in which the Popes are right now under attack by the Horrible Monsters. She tells the party what weaknesses the Horrible Monsters have and how to make sure they stay dead.
The party gets to the main chamber, where the Popes are hunkered down behind a Wall of Force, out of spell slots with the melee Pope seriously wounded. Also in the chamber is a statue, made of black basalt, of a beautiful elven woman. Hanging above this statue is a super-enormous troll skull tied to the ceiling with rotting ropes. The troll skull speaks, imploring the party to "Let me bite her!" A feminine voice comes into everyone's mind, imploring the party to smash the statue and set her free, and that she can help them.
During the fight, one of the Popes casts her last spell. I, as the DM, say out loud: "This one doesn't get a roll because this next thing is scripted." I then describe her fire bolt going wildly off target and heading towards the statu--
Necromancer: "COUNTERSPELL!"
Uhh. Ok. Fine, I guess you didn't need THAT clue either.
The party finishes off the Horrible Monsters, but it’s clear more are coming. The party barricades the entrance to the chamber.
So to recap, here's the situation: There's an army of trolls massing to attack the city above them. There's a bunch of Horrible Monsters milling around just out of sight of the entrance to this dead-end cavern. The Popes are in no condition to keep fighting.
The trolls have used a very powerful "seal evil" spell that the party has seen before. They're normally so inoffensive and reclusive that even the people who live up here never suspected they were intelligent, but they've mounted a massive organized offensive twelve hours after this cavern was discovered, and their leader is talking about "cleansing evil like their ancestors once did". The troll skull wants to bite the person in this statue.
The woman in the statue claims she was unjustly imprisoned for the crimes of her sister. She claims she only wants to help. She was truthful in both guiding the party to the Popes and also with regard to how to kill the Horrible Monsters.
Vecna wants this Dark One to die. The Master Librarian wants this Dark One to live.
Time is crucial. People could be dying right now on the surface. What do you do, party?
The intended options are: 1) Free the woman in the statue, 2) Let the troll skull fall onto the statue and bite her, presumably destroying her, or 3) Leave the statue for now and just focus on getting the Popes out; come back to this thing later.
What actually happens? Well, the Necromancer pulls out his skeletons, gives them pickaxes and tries to start chipping the stone out from under the statue. He wants to take the statue intact. I tell him this could take hours. He insists this is his plan.
A normal party would have left him down there to do his thing, but this party has gotten into the habit of following Necromancer like he was really a general. They decide to take a 2-hour short rest while he's trying to Minecraft around my statue.
Finally, I've recovered enough from my shock to pull the "DM says NO" card (which always makes me feel so dirty; this is the first time I've used it in this entire campaign). "After seeing how little progress your skeletons have made, you know this will take much more knowledge and equipment and time than you currently have."
I make it clear, at this point, that the Horrible Monsters are no longer lurking just outside the cavern. One of the Popes asks: "Did you barricade the entrance to the temple behind you?" Of course they didn't.
The party doesn't get the hint.
More time passes. I have the Popes throw their hands up and limp off slowly on their own, determined to escape the caves and help their people no matter the cost.
Necromancer and party spend more time discussing how to get out of here without making a firm decision. He refuses to just leave and come back, because "The Popes know this thing is down here too now."
He floats the idea of chasing down and assassinating the weakened Popes, so nobody else knows about the statue but the party.
Neutral Good Monk and Chaotic Good Rogue mutter, nodding thoughtfully like this is a good idea (it must be a good idea; it means MOAR COMBAT!).
Lawful Good Fighter is silent and uncomfortable; True Neutral Bard is angrily staring at Necromancer, who is oblivious.
For the second time, I have to "DM says NO". "I'm not prepared to re-write the entire story of this world to account for you opening up a power vacuum in the World Government." Later, I privately told him I really said "no" because the entire suggestion was a psychological meta-game; he knew the party wouldn't try to kill him for it even though they totally, by all IC rights, should have.
Finally, after about two and a half hours of in-game time, Necromancer uses an empty genie bottle (long story tl;dr: he has an empty genie bottle) to capture the spirit of the woman in the statue. Only now can they leave.
A peek behind the DM’s screen: Freeing the statue woman would have allowed her to destroy the rest of the Horrible Monsters in the caves, by tapping into the troll's spell. Letting the troll kill the statue woman would have had the troll shaman end his attack on the city, since the "evil" is now gone. Leaving the statue behind would have allowed the party to get out of the caverns and seal them up before the Horrible Monsters realized the door was still open, and then all the Popes would have been able to devise a strategy to fight off or negotiate with the trolls.
Instead, the party climbs back into the temple and there's blood and panic everywhere, with acolytes screaming about Horrible Monsters. They look out the window and see trolls climbing over the city walls to engage in fierce combat with the temple defenders. "And that's where we'll start out next session," I said, because it's getting late and some of us had to work the next morning.
As everyone was packing up and heading out, I asked Necromancer what was going through his head. He told me, and I quote, "I didn't have enough information to make a decision."
He then went on to extol the virtues of playing in a setting where all the lore is available to everyone, like in Elder Scrolls where there's all kinds of wikis and youtube videos.
[To be fair, he insisted later that those two ideas were on two unrelated conversation topics.]
A few days later, I tried to talk to him about it again. I said I felt like he had more than enough information to make a decision, even more than anyone else thanks to having Vecna's book, and I felt like his problem was that he didn't know which answer was going to min-max out for his character the best. I pointed out that he somehow has enough information to be confident in suggesting a plan to kill the leaders of the world government.
He's got a strong personality, and he insists he was completely right, and now I'm wondering if he really was right. I almost said "fuck it" and sat down to write out all the lore of my world, totally throwing away any mystery/investigation angles to the adventures because I guess I just don't write them right, or maybe I'm the only one who enjoys them and nobody else has fun this way.
I actually did write out five pages on who the woman in the statue really was, after our talk, and sent it to Necromancer; that was four days ago and he hasn't opened it to read it.
And as far as the story of the campaign goes, I feel like it's been trashed. I have no earthly idea what happens next, only that the stuff that was supposed to happen next can't anymore.
Part of me wants to have-wave a way for the party to save the temple and shift over to a straight-forward DMing style of "things don't happen until you get there to see them and I always let you know exactly what you need to do". The other party of me says "No, fuck 'em, they made their bed, now they can lie in it," and create a scenario with more realistic consequences for this decision.
And all that depends on whether or not I have a right to be pissed off to begin with.
So while this is obviously a horror story, the question is: who's the horror? Am I the horror story here, or is Necromancer?
submitted by TaiTastigon to rpghorrorstories [link] [comments]

Coronavirus response: Trump uses ventilators for political gain & DPA for retaliation

Welcome, dear readers, to the third installment of my coronavirus roundup. I'm posting these every Friday in addition to Lost in the Sauce on Mondays (for non-coronavirus news). The title is a reference to the “Uneven distribution” section below, describing how Trump sent ventilators to Colorado as a political favor to a vulnerable GOP senator, and the "Using the Defense Production Act to retaliate" section where Trump admits to using the act as retaliation against 3M.
Housekeeping:

Yet more warnings ignored

*Intel reports

US intelligence agencies were tracking the coronavirus outbreak in China as early as November, offering multiple early warnings about the potential severity of the pandemic now spreading throughout the nation. Trump was informed of the threat posed by the coronavirus on January 3, when the intelligence collected by the National Center for Medical Intelligence was included in the President's daily briefing.
"Analysts concluded it could be a cataclysmic event," one of the sources said of the NCMI’s report. "It was then briefed multiple times to" the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Pentagon’s Joint Staff and the White House. Wednesday night, the Pentagon issued a statement denying the "product/assessment" existed.
...From that warning in November, the sources described repeated briefings through December for policy-makers and decision-makers across the federal government as well as the National Security Council at the White House. All of that culminated with a detailed explanation of the problem that appeared in the President’s Daily Brief of intelligence matters in early January...

*Navarro’s memos

On January 29, President Trump’s trade adviser Peter Navarro, wrote a memo warning the White House that the coronavirus could claim more than a half-million lives because it was much more serious than the seasonal flu:
“The lack of immune protection or an existing cure or vaccine would leave Americans defenseless in the case of a full-blown coronavirus outbreak on U.S. soil,” Mr. Navarro’s memo said. “This lack of protection elevates the risk of the coronavirus evolving into a full-blown pandemic, imperiling the lives of millions of Americans.”
Then, on February 23, Navarro sent a second memo (directly addressed to Trump) that warned of an “increasing probability of a full-blown COVID-19 pandemic that could infect as many as 100 million Americans, with a loss of life of as many as 1.2 million souls.” He urged the task force, which had been meeting for nearly a month, to spare no expense to “get the appropriate protective gear and point of care diagnostics [read: rapid COVID-19 tests].”
Despite Navarro’s advice to start buying personal protective equipment (PPE) and developing rapid COVID-19 testing methods, the Trump administration didn't start making orders for bulk production of that gear until the middle of March.
During the Tuesday Trump rally Coronavirus task force briefing, Trump was asked if he read the memos at the time:
”I don’t remember that, I’ve now seen the memo. I saw it- Peter sends a lot of memo… as you know, World Health [Organization] was saying that was not correct because at the time they called it wrong… I acted as quickly- people were shocked that I acted so quickly and everybody thought I was wrong because I did act so quickly, as you know, with respect to closing the borders . With respect not only to China, but with Europe I closed the borders and I think that was very important.
Asked how the memo would have changed the steps he took if he had read it at the time, Trump replied: “I don’t think it would have changed it because I did- I basically did what the memo said and the memo was a pretty good memo from the standpoint that he talked - I guess, I didn’t see it yet… I couldn’t have done it any better because it was at about the same time and I closed it down to China.”

*Not to mention…

Talking Points Memo: As recently as the end of February, the US Commerce Department was encouraging US companies to take advantage of newly relaxed Chinese import regulations to export masks, ventilators and other COVID-relevant medical supplies to China.
Former federal prosecutor Barbara McQuade: Bush devised a plan for pandemics like the coronavirus. Trump is ignoring it... In 2005, President George W. Bush announced the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza, and the following year, his administration rolled out an implementation plan. The plan has been updated as recently as 2017 and provides a blueprint for the administration to act during the current outbreak. Federal command, control and coordination are covered in the plan.

Turnover and vacancies

I’ve been tracking the turnover and vacancies in the Trump administration for three years now. Although the overall number of departures has slowed down since the first year, the people who have been leaving the administration lately (whether fired or resigned) tend to be high-level officials. Particularly after Trump’s pressure campaign on Ukraine and the associated whistleblower complaint, many of these departing officials held significant positions in the intelligence sector. This specific form of “chaos” in the administration has hampered our response to the outbreak and likely led to the loss of thousands of lives.
Politico published an op-ed that brilliantly captures this aspect of the crisis:
Donald Trump’s Apprentice-style staffing bake-offs and his oft-voiced predilection for acting officials kept the U.S. government distracted, off-kilter and understaffed.
Trump is obviously not responsible for the appearance of the novel coronavirus—but he is responsible for the government’s spiraling failure to respond appropriately in a timely manner. He has ignored the hiring practices, protocols, norms and expertise that would have given him and the federal government a better shot at defeating Covid-19. Three years into his administration and with a Republican-controlled Senate ready to move nominees through to confirmation, he didn’t build the national leadership we needed. That inescapable fact is Donald Trump’s fault.

Testing bungled

Three months into the coronavirus outbreak in the US and the federal government still has not created a national strategy to test Americans for the disease, leaving states to devise their own testing systems.
While testing has accelerated now that private companies are processing samples, even the most aggressive states have tested just a small fraction of their residents. New York has tested 1,645 of every 100,000 people and Utah 1,043 of every 100,000, but Texas has tested just 297 and Georgia 381. On a per capita basis, the United States lags behind several other countries in the rate of testing.
Some Trump officials said it is too late to create a national testing strategy and that it should have been done weeks, if not months, ago. “We were a month behind on getting testing set up, and now we’re just trying to ramp up testing every single day,” said one official, speaking on the condition of anonymity to be frank. (WaPo)
In spite of this testing lag - and with the peak of the crisis expected next week - the federal government is ending its support for testing sites today: “Some local officials are disappointed the federal government will end funding for coronavirus testing sites this Friday. In a few places those sites will close as a result,” NPR reports. One of the sites that are closing in Pennsylvania tested 250 people a day, totaling over 5,000 individuals since March 21.
UPDATE: Last night, NPR reported that HHS reversed its policy after defending it all day. Now, the agency claims, “local authorities can choose whether they want to transition to running the programs themselves or continue with federal oversight and help.”

*UPDATE: More details of testing failures

A new report from CNN states that "over January and February, agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services not only failed to make early use of the hundreds of labs across the United States, they enforced regulatory roadblocks that prevented non-government labs from assisting."
Federal agencies had their own plan to ramp up testing during a national health crisis, but failed to fully enact it:
The plan, which is spelled out in an April 2018 agreement between the Centers for Disease Control and three of the biggest associations involved in lab testing, called for boosting the capacity of public health labs, bringing big commercial labs into the testing process early, and making sure labs would have whatever they needed to mount a rapid, large-scale response.
...But, smothered by bureaucratic inertia and disinterest at the highest levels of the Trump Administration in pandemic preparation, that agreement, known as a memorandum of understanding, today remains far from being fully realized, scientists say. "What we needed was extremely aggressive leadership at the CDC level and at the national level to say, okay, these are all our plans... I don't think there was really a realization of the magnitude of the problem," said Glenn Morris, director of the Emerging Pathogens Institute at the University of Florida.
As late as January 28, in an email obtained by CNN, CDC Director Robert Redfield told state public health directors that "the virus is not spreading in the U.S. at this time and CDC believes the immediate health risk from 2019-nCoV to the general American public is low."

*5-minute test

Last weekend, Trump praised Abbott Laboratories’ 5-minute coronavirus testing machines, saying “That’s a whole new ballgame. I want to thank Abbott Labs for the incredible work they’ve done.” The president claimed that “Abbott will be providing 50,000, or more, tests per day starting on April 2nd, with the first shipments out already.”
However, FEMA and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) later revealed that the federal government only ordered enough tests for 5,500 people - far below what would be needed to achieve widespread testing:
all 50 state health departments, as well as some local health departments, would each receive 10 to 15 devices for a total of 780 devices distributed nationwide. Each lab would also be receiving 100 coronavirus tests — a total of 5,500 tests across the country
Abbott said by the end of today, the company will have shipped more than 190,000 rapid tests. Where will the ~184,500 tests go? HHS spokesperson said those will be “for hospitals and other healthcare providers to purchase through the commercial sector." In other words, the vast majority of the 5-minute tests will end up being sold in the same eBay-like bidding war between the states and hospitals, driving up the price and generating profit for Abbott Labs.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan (R) said in an interview that his state needs at least 100,000 more tests than it has right now. “We’ve talked to Abbott. They’re shortly supposed to have a small amount of testing machines out to the states. No governor in America has received any yet,” Hogan said. “They’ve said they are available. They are not yet available. They say, ‘Get on the phone, governors can get all these things.’ I just got off the phone with all the governors, no governors have these things.” (WaPo)
  • Further reading: 538 “Why We Still Need To Test Widely For Coronavirus,” Stat News “Covid-19 testing: overcoming challenges in the next phase of the epidemic,” USA Today “Labs are testing 100,000 people each day for the coronavirus. That's still not enough.”
  • Trump fact check: CNN: President Donald Trump has falsely claimed four times since last week that he inherited a faulty coronavirus test -- which was, in reality, developed this year… he faulty initial test for the coronavirus was created during Trump's administration, in early 2020, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since this is a new virus that was first identified this year, the tests couldn't possibly be "old" or "obsolete."

Using the Defense Production Act to retaliate

Last week, Trump invoked the Defense Production Act (DPA) to prevent the export of surgical masks and gloves outside of the country, singling out 3M in particular to require all US-made N95 masks be kept for the US market. "You could call it retaliations. Because that's what it is. It's a retaliation," Trump said last Saturday.
"Ceasing all export of respirators produced in the United States would likely cause other countries to retaliate and do the same," a 3M statement warned. "If that were to occur, the net number of respirators being made available to the United States would actually decrease."
..."The company was reluctant to accept the White House request on legal and humanitarian grounds, as medical workers across the region would be deprived of protection," a source told the Financial Times. "3M executives did commit to exporting a similar number of masks to the US from a plant in China but that did not stop the White House from publicly attacking the company."
Trump’s export ban frustrated and infuriated some Canadians, with PM Trudeau warning that Canada’s relationship with the United States is a “two-way street” – a reference to the Canadian healthcare workers that cross into Michigan each day.
On Tuesday, Trump announced his administration had "reached an agreement, very amicable, with 3M for the delivery of an additional 55.5 million high-quality face masks each month." Those respirators are intended to be delivered from 3M’s Chinese factories while 3M will be allowed to continue exporting its US-made respirators.

*How to actually use the DPA

In the face of mounting pressure from the national-security community and both Republican and Democratic lawmakers, Trump has nominally embraced the statute, but for the limited purpose of singling out companies for undefined deficiencies.
How is the DPA supposed to be used? It is a complicated statute, “not a big stick that forces results from otherwise uncooperative manufacturers, but a set of assorted authorities that enable the executive branch to take on the central-strategist role that no other entity has the information, resources, or mandate to execute.”
The DPA offers a blueprint for bridging those gaps. Title III of the statute authorizes the president to design an array of financial incentives that, with the right appropriations from Congress, would enable private industry to assist in the national defense effort, including loans, loan guarantees, direct purchases, and purchase commitments. The point is to expand domestic production capacity “to avert an industrial resource or critical technology item shortfall that would severely impair national defense capability.”
Another part of the statute that went unaddressed in the executive order, Title VII, empowers Trump to turn relevant portions of the competitive market into a cooperative one, which is crucial for stimulating production in the face of complicated supply bottlenecks.
...The DPA is not an authoritarian alternative to good corporate citizenship. It empowers the government to spur and synchronize what would otherwise amount to inadequate, piecemeal efforts to equip the country to fight the pandemic. Using the statute does not mean giving up on American ingenuity in an emergency but competently maximizing it—and recognizing that the energy must come from the top.

*There’s more…

Politico: President Donald Trump’s administration stands accused of effectively hijacking shipments of masks and additional crucial supplies meant for other countries, including U.S. allies, and strong-arming private firms to prioritize America over other parts of the world… Multiple reports emerged this week in which foreign officials accused Americans — including U.S. government representatives — of essentially commandeering shipments of medical supplies meant for other countries, among them generally well-off U.S. allies in Europe.

What stockpile?

*Investigation

You may recall my earlier post detailing Jared Kushner’s incorrect claim that the Strategic National Stockpile belongs to the federal government and that states are not supposed to be using it. The Homeland Security Committee and Oversight Committee are now investigating Kushner’s role, seeking “all communications between any FEMA employee and Jared Kushner regarding the acquisition, distribution of, or federally directed sale of any form of PPE or of medical supplies and equipment to be used for the diagnosis or treatment of COVID-19," according to the letter.
"We are troubled by reports that Mr. Kushner’s actions — and those of outside advisers he has assembled and tasked — may be 'circumventing protocols that ensure all states’ requests are handled appropriately,'" they wrote. "We are particularly troubled that Mr. Kushner’s work may even involve 'directing FEMA and HHS officials to prioritize specific requests from people who are able to get Kushner on the phone.'"

*Stockpile empty amid mismanagement

A report released by the House Oversight Committee on Wednesday revealed that HHS staff admitted that the federal stockpile of personal protective equipment (PPE) is depleted and states will not be receiving any more shipments. Chairwoman Carolyn Maloney released a statement saying:
“The document the Oversight Committee is releasing today shows that the federal government has distributed just a fraction of the personal protective equipment and critical medical supplies that our hospitals and medical first responders urgently need… Now that the national stockpile has been depleted of critical equipment, it appears that the Administration is leaving states to fend for themselves, to scour the open market for these scarce supplies, and to compete with each other and federal agencies in a chaotic, free-for-all bidding war.”
The report reveals that “only 11.7 million N95 respirator masks have been distributed nationwide—less than 1% of the 3.5 billion masks that the Trump Administration estimated would be necessary in the event of a severe pandemic.” Additionally, “only 7,920 ventilators have been distributed from the stockpile, even though a recent survey of 213 mayors—which did not include New York City, Chicago, or Seattle—identified a total estimated need of 139,000 ventilators.”
Furthermore, HHS sent all states at least three shipments of PPE and supplies, which were not based on states’ requests. Instead, the federal government used 2010 Census population data to determine a proportional amount that was sent in the first two shipments, then sent all states roughly the same amount of supplies in the third “final push” shipment. As an example of the inequities of the final push: “both Vermont and Texas received 120,900 respirators. Based on 2010 Census data, that is equivalent to roughly 193 respirators for every 1,000 residents in Vermont, but fewer than 5 respirators per 1,000 residents in Texas.”

*HHS IG report

The Inspector General for the Dept. of Health and Human Services issued a report on Monday detailing “severe shortages” facing hospitals dealing with the pandemic, largely as a result of Trump’s policies. The data for the report was collected between March 23-27, before the worst of the crisis hit the US.
Hospital administrators expressed uncertainty about availability of PPE from Federal and State sources. Some hospitals noted that at the time of our interview they had not received supplies from the Strategic National Stockpile, or that the supplies that they had received were not sufficient in quantity or quality.
... One health system reported that it received 1,000 masks from the Federal and State governments, but it had been expecting a larger resupply. Further, 500 of the masks were for children and therefore unusable for the health system’s adult staff. One hospital reported receiving a shipment of 2,300 N95 masks from a State strategic reserve, but the masks were not useable because the elastic bands had dry-rotted.
When asked about the IG report, Trump attacked the IG, claiming “politics entered into” the conclusions in the report: "It's just wrong. Did I hear the word 'inspector general,' really? It's wrong,” Trump said.
He later took to Twitter: “Why didn’t the I.G., who spent 8 years with the Obama Administration (Did she Report on the failed H1N1 Swine Flu debacle where 17,000 people died?), want to talk to the Admirals, Generals, V.P. & others in charge, before doing her report. Another Fake Dossier!”
The following day Trump admonished a female reporter for asking about the testing failures highlighted in the IG report, dismissed the report because the IG wasn’t appointed by him, and called another report “third-rate” for not mentioning in his question that the IG worked in the Obama administration.
  • Fact check: The HHS IG is actually a woman (not a man, as Trump thought) and her name is Christi Grimm. She is a career official who has worked at HHS since 1999. She served during the Clinton, Bush, Obama and Trump administrations.
  • Noah Bookbinder, of CREW, pointed out that under the system put into place after Watergate, inspectors general are supposed to do more than just highlight abuses and wrongdoing. “Much of what they spend their time doing is making constructive recommendations to facilitate more effective government functioning,” Bookbinder told me. “The current president is so intent on stifling anything that could reflect negatively on his administration that he is undercutting a system that helps the government do a better job, which in the current crisis could save lives."

Uneven distribution

As we saw in the stockpile segment above, HHS admits to not tailoring distributions from the stockpile to states based on need. However, the actual reports from the states indicate that the distribution is more tainted by political bias and simple chaos than the House Oversight report reveals.
For instance, in early March Washington state requested 233,000 N95 respirators and 200,000 surgical masks, but the Strategic National Stockpile sent them less than half that amount. Days later, on March 11, Florida asked for 430,000 surgical masks, 180,000 N95 respirators, and other equipment. The full order arrived three days later. The state received a second full shipment less than two weeks later with a third on the way.
One White House official said Trump is attuned to the electoral importance of Florida in November, giving added weight to the arguments DeSantis has made to the administration that his state’s economy should reopen as soon as possible. “The president knows Florida is so important for his reelection, so when DeSantis says that, it means a lot,” said the official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to be frank. “He pays close attention to what Florida wants.”
We saw another instance of this political favoritism this week. For weeks, Trump ignored Colorado’s Democratic Governor’s repeated pleas for ventilators. Gov. Jared Polis eventually reached a deal with a private company for 500 ventilators, but FEMA stepped in to prevent the sale and buy the machines instead. It wasn’t until vulnerable GOP Sen. Cory Gardner asked for the machines that Trump decided to send them, announcing on Twitter that they were being sent in Gardner’s name.
Rep. Diana DeGette (D-CO) called out the deal with Gardner as a “political favor.” DeGette said in an interview: "I was totally outraged… Nowhere did it say if a Republican senator calls up the President they can get it," noting Gardner then took "all kinds of credit on national TV."
Sen. Elizabeth Warren on her home state’s difficulties getting a hold of supplies: "now he’s focused on how Donald Trump is going to get reelected. That invades every decision that he makes…. How can it be that Kentucky and Florida get 100 percent or 100 percent-plus of what they need while Massachusetts doesn't? I think anyone would look at that and say it's Donald Trump playing politics once again."

Feds seizing from states

The federal government is seizing medical supply orders from hospitals and clinics across the nation, “leaving medical providers across the country in the dark about where the material is going and how they can get what they need to deal with the coronavirus pandemic.” The LA Times (pastebin) reports that healthcare networks in seven states have had their orders seized: In Florida, a large medical system had an order of thermometers taken away; in the Pacific Northwest, a multi-state hospital system had a shipment of testing supplies seized.
“Are they stockpiling this stuff? Are they distributing it? We don’t know,” one official said. “And are we going to ever get any of it back if we need supplies? It would be nice to know these things.”
The New York Times compiled similar reports: In Massachusetts, state leaders said a large order of PPE was seized; in Kentucky, a broker pulled out of an agreement to deliver medical gear to a hospital system after “the supplies were commandeered” by FEMA.
This is speculation, but it’s hard not to think that something a bit shady is going on here. Are the supplies being given to private companies to sell at a profit? Or are the seized supplies being directed to Trump’s allies and swing states that he needs to win for re-election? Rather than to states in need like NY.
  • Further reading: The incredible lengths that states are forced to go to: The federal government kept seizing PPE ordered by Mass. In desperation, Gov. Charlie Baker (R) created a backchannel to the Chinese ambassador to the UN and had the New England Patriots send a jet to pick the PPE up and finally get it to Mass. hospitals. Also: One of the lone Republican governors who has been critical of Trump, Larry Hogan of Maryland, asked his Korean immigrant wife to appeal to South Korean officials for help in securing COVID-19 tests - Multiple South Korean companies “immediately” agreed to send tests.

Airbridge to profit

The House Oversight Committee is also investigating “Project Airbridge,” in which medical supplies are flown in from other countries for use in the US. However, last week we learned that the federal government is not taking control of the supplies and is instead allowing the private sector to sell the majority in a bidding war between the states, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities.
Illinois Gov. Pritzker confirmed that the Trump administration is assisting private companies in profiting off the crisis:
"We're bidding, unfortunately, for all of these items of equipment against the federal government and against the other states and against other countries, because what the White House has done is created—you know, they call this the air bridge, where they're bringing stuff back from China to the United States, and then they're delivering it to private companies in the United States, not to the states," said Pritzker. "And they're letting all of us bid against each other for those goods that are owned by the private companies."
  • Note: There was a popular comment/post a few days ago that linked a GOP fundraiser to the airbridge project. Mike Gula left the political field to open a coronavirus-supply business. To be clear, there is no evidence that Gula is involved in the selling of airbridge materials. However, it is obvious that corruption and profiteering would flourish in this scheme.

Additional reading

Republican leadership:
  • ProPublica: How Tea Party Budget Battles Left the National Emergency Medical Stockpile Unprepared for Coronavirus. Fiscal restraints imposed by Republicans in Congress in the early years of the Obama administration left the U.S. less prepared to respond to the coronavirus pandemic today.
  • WaPo: Decades of conservative governance has worsened the coronavirus crisis. From tax cuts to slashing government, conservatives ideas have left the Trump administration ill-equipped to handle the pandemic
Fact checks:
  • TPM: Trump Claimed The Feds Have ‘Built 18 Hospitals.’ FEMA And Army Records Say Otherwise
  • Factcheck: Trump Falsely Claims He Inherited ‘Empty’ Stockpile
  • Politifact: Trump blames past administrations for a flawed COVID-19 test. The test couldn’t have existed earlier. Mercury News: Trump has falsely claimed four times since last week that he inherited a faulty coronavirus test — which was, in reality, developed this year.
  • AP: As pandemic deepens, Trump cycles through targets to blame. And an op-ed in CNN: The coronavirus blame game: It's not just Trump.
    • Guardian: Trump scapegoating of WHO obscures its key role in tackling pandemic
Supplies:
  • CNN: 600 million facemask order won't help fight coronavirus epidemic at its peak
  • ProPublica: A Company Promised Cheap Ventilators to the Government, Never Delivered and Is Now Charging Quadruple the Price for New Ones. Royal Philips N.V. agreed in September to sell 10,000 ventilators to the U.S. for $3,280 each. It did not deliver. But the Dutch company just announced a new deal with the government. This time, it’s charging roughly $15,000 each.
    • Note that an earlier article on the topic said Philips was negotiating the higher price with Jared Kushner.
  • TPM: Trump Claims Hospitals Are In ‘Great Shape’ With Ventilators Because Hannity Said So
  • Vox: You can’t use ventilators without sedatives. Now the US is running out of those, too.
  • Rep. Katie Porter has released a report showing that mask and ventilator exports from the U.S. increased dramatically in early 2020
Reopening the country:
  • Wired: To End the Pandemic, Give Universal Testing the Green Light [important read]
  • Stat News: We need smart coronavirus testing, not just more testing
  • WaPo: Bill Gates: Here’s how to make up for lost time on covid-19
  • NPR: CDC Director: 'Very Aggressive' Contact Tracing Needed For U.S. To Return To Normal
  • ABC News: Could a simple blood test for COVID-19 antibodies help reopen the economy?
submitted by rusticgorilla to Keep_Track [link] [comments]

Challenger Vel'Koz Guide by Azzapp

Azzapp's Challenger Vel'Koz guide

About me

I’m Azzapp, a streamer content creator primarily focused on Vel’Koz. I have been playing league since s1, played competitively amateur scene s5/s6. I’ve played Vel’Koz since he came out in season 4, and have done many guides/coaching sessions on him. During season 9 I have hit Challenger on 3 different servers and 3 different pings. EUW(~70), EUNE(~60) and NA(~150). My Tiple Challenger AMA post : https://www.reddit.com/leagueoflegends/comments/c9x4em/hi_im_azzapp_and_ive_reached_challenger_season_9/

Why Vel’Koz

I have always found characters with tentacle badass [insert tentacle hentai joke here]. That probably stems from the fear of the depths, underwater weird moving creatures, fortified by H. P. Lovecraft Cthulhu mythos. Anyway I believe he has one of the best if not the best champion designs in the game. Ever since I saw the First Contact trailer I was hooked. Everything about this champion is awesome, incredible and unique lore, a trailer so good it gives you the goosebumps, voice that send shivers down your spine, mind blowing visual and particle effects design.
Those were my initial thoughts when I saw the champion get released. I prayed that he is going to be as epic as I had imagined in the game as well.
There I was finally playing my newfound favorite champion with a grin from ear to ear. I didn’t even realize the fact that the champion sucks. When he got release he had practically no AP scaling, he was weak and vulnerable and pretty damn complex to master. The fact that no one thought he was viable didn’t even phase me one bit. I was blinded by the champions design that I couldn’t care whether he is good in game or not. I just kept playing until I figured out a lot of tricks that make Vel’Koz pretty alright. I was very motivated to show people that Vel’Koz can actually be viable.
Vel’Koz is one of the most unique characters in league of legends. He is something between artillery and a control mage. His Q can be used in plethora of ways. 360 degrees to decide the direction and the ability to reactivate at any point in time. His initial Q range is 1050 and reactivated Q range is 1100. Due to the slight difference the maximum range is achieved with roughly 46.33 degree angle with range =~1520. It’s also important to note that second stage Q is faster which comes into play with some combos. One of the first and most simple yet beautiful tricks is the Q+R combo. We will go very deep into combos later on.

Runes

Vel’Koz runes since runes reforged have been pretty much stable. There are potential 3 setups I like to use. If you are a beginner you are interested in only one in my opinion. The most common one and the optimal one is Arcane Comet Vel’Koz.

Arcane Comet

Arcane comet is the best keystone for Vel’koz, it enables you to go Sorcery tree which has great synergy with Vel’koz. You will mostly be poking with Q which guarantees Comet damage. It just very stable and solid playstyle which is always useful.

Manaflow band/ Nullifying Orb

Manaflow band is the standard for laning. It has great mana value, stacks up quite easily and once stacked provides extra mana regen for more spam.
Nullifying Orb is the defensive option here, usually used if you are laning vs very aggressive casters like Fizz.

Transcendence

You are a caster with 4 skillshots. More W spam = more wave control., More Q = more poke and combo setup, More E = less downtime when you can play aggressive. More R = MORE DISINTEGRATION.

Scorch/ Gathering Storm

Scorch is used for early game domination. Has really good synergy with Comet poke. More suited for poking playstyle since it can proc only once every 10s.
Gathering Storm takes a while to get going and is completely useless for the first 10 minutes. That being said in an all in combo it outscales Scorch after only 10 minutes. After 20 it gives 500 gold worth of AP, 1000 at 30…
For secondary runes here there are 2 playstyles. You can go aggressive(Domination) and passive(Inspiration). To the Vel’Koz beginners I always suggest Inspiration since survival is #1 priority. You would be surprised how many champions will one shot you without any skillshots in current meta.

Magical Footwea Perfect Timing

All Vel’Koz skillshots are directly tied to his model so the faster you move the more you can land. Magical footwear provides great value and can also help you kite easier.
Stopwatch is an immobile squishy mages best friend. Getting one for free is great 10/10.

Cosmic Insight

Cooldown reduction is one of the most useful stats on mid lane Vel'Koz. Any type of CDR is extremely powerful and increases your impact in teamfights.

Taste of Blood

If you decide to go the more aggressive snowballing route, Taste of Blood is great tool for short trades. Technically Cheap Shot would help you secure even more kills but the numbers are just not that great, so healing provides way more value.

Ultimate Hunter

Insanely fun to stack and gives you way more ultimate uses per game. Paired up with season 10 Cloud Dragon your ultimate can reach 21 seconds cooldown. Collecting ADC tears has never been faster!
Others are Glacial Augment, Dark Harvest.

Glacial Augment

Glacial Augment works great in difficult match ups such as Yasuo, Zed, Qiyana especially if enemy comp is mostly AD. It essentially crunches the skill ceiling making the champion easier to play but making it hard to distinguish good players vs great players. In that case you are more of a supporting character trying to control teamfights and set your team up.
Usual build would be corrupting -> dark seal, lost chapter -> GLP -> Sorcery boots -> Zhonya’s -> Morello.
For runes you would want Stopwatch -> Future’s Market -> Time warp tonic into Domination (Cheap shot/taste of blood -> Ingenious Hunter).

Dark Harvest

Dark Harvest is probably my favorite Vel’koz setup. On release it was incredible and a bit overtuned. Then it went through 2 nerfs which made it barely viable, and only so on Support role. If you can manage 5 stacks per 10 minutes then it outscales the comet. Obviously the downside is a bit weaker early game but Dark Harvest having a reset on takedown can be incredibly rewarding for solo q.
Usual build would be Spellthief -> Dark seal, Boots -> Boots of Mobility -> Twin Shadows -> Liandry’s Torment.
For runes you would want Taste of blood - > Eyeball Collection -> Relentless Hunter into Sorcery( Manaflow Band -> Celerity)

Electrocute

Electrocute is decent for trading and it is the successor of the previously best rune for Vel’Koz “Thunderlord’s decree”. The issue with Electrocute is that it’s difficult to proc. It can work in some melee match ups depending on your playstyle but I’m not a huge fan.

Predator

Predator I used to use in jungle but with jungle changes for season 10 Vel’Koz has harder time getting to 6. Don’t recommend you do it... a lot.
There is also a viable Predator mid lane roaming playstyle. It works alright with the season changes and plates being worth less. In case you have a hard match up mid you would like to avoid completely you can use this build. Maxing out W and spamming it to clear waves fast then looking for roams.

Summoner Spells

Flash

Using an immobile squishy mage without flash is begging to get ran over by almost every champion in the game. Also flash is extremely potent if you want to prefix it with an ability(Q,E or R). More on that here![animation cancelling guide]

Barrier

The most common one in mid lane and support. The sheer strength of barrier and low cooldown provide really good value and a dose of safety.

Heal

Heal is used as a different version of safety. Has a bit longer cooldown and less hp value then barrier but it’s used if it can make it up in movement speed or helping teammates. Usual match ups where I go heal instead are: Cassiopeia, Viktor, Orianna..

Skill order

Skill order is one of the most debated things about Vel’Koz. Maxing Q gives you higher burst and kill potential but weaker wave management. On the other hand maxing W gives you better wave control but less kill potential. Over the years of playing Vel’Koz I have devised a skill order which I believe to be optimal in most cases. I like putting 3 points in W by level 5 which gives you just enough pushing power and helps you through the early game when Vel’Koz isn't the strongest and you wouldn't be going for kill anyway. After 3 points in W I proceed with maxing Q to increase the slow duration and burst potential. Obviously you will be getting points in R when available and after maxing Q you will proceed with maxing W.

Abilities

Passive

Organic Deconstruction is an extremely important mechanic in your kit when playing Vel’Koz. To deal optimal damage you should be basing your trades around your passive. In the best case scenario you will land 9 stacks on the opponent which is 3 true damage rotations. For quick trades you should be looking to proc Organic Deconstruction at least once. People will rarely respect your stacks especially if you only applied one, but sometimes only 1 stack is enough to enable your play. You should check out the combo guide for more.

Q – Plasma Fission

Plasma Fission is the most unique ability for Vel’koz. Manipulating the reactivation of your Q open up a whole new world of play making. It is the catalyst in 90% of Vel’koz plays. However mastering the shooting and reactivation is only a part of it. Because of it’s geometrical/trigonometrical nature, Plasma Fission is directly connected to your positioning. Getting into good positions will make extremely difficult shots into check mate scenarios where your Q is impossible to dodge.

W – Void Rift

Void Rift is the only basic ability in Vel’Koz kit which has the potential to apply more than 1 stack of Organic Deconstruction. It is mostly used for pushing, wave management and follow up to Plasma Fission or Tectonic Disruption. It is extremely hard to hit both part of W on it’s own, but it boosts your damage output heavily if you can set it up.

E – Tectonic Disruption

Tectonic Disruption is the only form of hard CC Vel’Koz has. Landing E enables you to dish out your full combo but missing it can be devastating for your mana pool and pressure in lane. It is best to use it after landing Plasma Fission which greatly increases your chance of succeeding. Tectonic Disruption is also your only disengage ability and it is very crucial not to waste it against assassins because it will render you vulnerable for the next 10-15 seconds.

R – Life Form Disintegration Ray

Life Form Disintegration Ray is by far the most powerful Vel’Koz ability and it definitely packs a punch, but it is by no means overpowered. There are 2 keys to using your R properly. First you have to account for all the potential disruptions because you are extremely vulnerable during the channeling time. Secondly, to get the most out of Life Form Disintegration Ray you have to manage the stacks of your passive. It is best used just after the first rotation granting you true damage for the full channel and one extra proc of Organic Deconstruction.

Items

Doran's Ring

Doran’s ring is the perfect starting item for Vel’koz It provides you with all the stats you need during your laning phase.

Dark Seal

Dark Seal is a great item to get on your first buy. It will slow your build a little bit but it's value will skyrocket throughout the game. Since Vel’Koz is relatively safe champion and has to keep good positioning at all times it will be easy to get stacks. At 10 stacks it’s value is ~1000 gold which gives it 300% efficiency.

Lost Chapter

Lost Chapter is the core for Vel’Koz no matter your playstyle. Getting it with the Dark Seal on your first buy will set you up for any game. After that you can choose to upgrade it to either Luden’s Echo, GLP or Archangel’s staff or you can even delay it and buy items you desperately need at that moment, like Banshee’s Veil or Zhonya’s Hourglass.

Luden’s Echo

Luden’s Echo is the optimal to rush as Vel’Koz. It has insane synergy with Sorcery tree and later on Liandry’s Torment. In the late game just hitting a minion near an opponent will dish out substantial amount of poke.

Archangel’s Staff

Archangel’s Staff is a safer counterpart to the Luden’s Echo. It has a bit slower powerspike so I don't recommend it in solo Q unless it is absolutely necessary.

Sorcerer’s Shoes

Sorcerer’s Shoes are obviously the best boots in terms of the burst potential. That being said they are not always the optimal choice. Vel’koz damage output consists of ~20-25% true damage which makes the magic penetration only ~75-80% effective. Magic penetration is not the core for Vel’koz so don't be afraid to adapt with your boots. Ionian Boots of Lucidity, Ninja Tabi, Mercury’s Treads are all good choices depending on the situation.

Liandry’s Torment

Liandry’s Torment is a good second item to buy in terms of raw damage output if opponents don't have too many heals like Soraka or Vladimir In that case you are better off building Morello.
Morllomonomnomicon
Morellonomicon works best in situations where opponents don't have too much magic resistance and/or they have a lot of healing/sustaining abilities.

Twin Shadows

Twin Shadows is an extremely cheap third item but it gives everything Vel’Koz needs. This item is a blessing against immobile targets and it makes your snowballing that much easier. It also helps you control the map providing pick potential and better control of sieges, dragon and baron fights.

EL SOMBRERO MORITFERO DE RABADON

EL SOMBRERO MORITFERO DE RABADON is obviously the best item in terms of raw AP and damage output, but it's very hard to build. It consists of 3 parts that are over 1000 gold and sometimes building it can take too much time without any powerspikes. You have to choose carefully when you want to get it, and if you do pick a good time, disintegration is assured.

Void Staff

Void Staff, despite it's name, it doesn't have the best synergy with Vel’Koz. We have previously stated that it will only be 80% effective than it would've on other chamnpions. That being said it is still a good 5th or 6th item if the opponents have plenty of magic resistance.

Zhonya’s Hourglass

Zhonya’s Hourglass is in most cases built as a reaction to opponents. The stats it offers aren't that good for Vel’Koz, but the stasis effect can very often be the difference between living or dying.

Banshee’s Veil

Banshee’s Veil is yet another situational item. It gives a little bit better stats than Hourglass and the magic shield will allow you to position more aggressively and it might save you while channeling Life Form Disintegration Ray.

Mejai’s Soulstealer

Mejai’s Soulstealer is a very underrated item and my favorite. It uses the similar logic to the Dark Seal. It's value becomes insane at 15+ stacks. I particularly like this item because when you buy it you instantly have to play better, it forces you to make less mistakes and die less in general.

GAMEPLAY

In most cases at level 1 you will want to take Q. It is more reliable for farming early game, less mana consumption and you might get some poke damage.
Early game as Vel’koz you're pretty safe and you will most likely not get ganked before 3 minutes so you want to make as much as pressure as you can. You are at your best when you are pressuring enemy and holding him on the ropes.
In some match up-s like Azir, Xerath, Aurelion Sol, Taliyah etc. you will not be able to outpush so picking up W level 1 and minion dematerializer can save you from taking a lot of damage trying to control the waves.
Vel'Koz is a champion that scales very well with levels, so you have to try and take advantage of spikes for level 2,3 and 6 during the laning phase. If you are controlling the waves and having slightly more pressure than the opponent, that means when you get close to a level up you can get it way sooner than the enemy.
Level 2 spike will rarely kill since you only have Q and W available to you so in best case scenario you will get 2 rotations of your passive but it might just be enough to give you a good lead in lane or even force a summoner spell.
Level 3 spike works in a similar way except you have access to your only hard cc ability making you more of a threat and better at setting up a gank. At this point it is possible to make enemy use Flash defensively.
Up until this point Vel’Koz was a relatively weak champion, even if you landed poke it wouldn't have been that impactful. From level 3 and on you gain more and more control.
Level 6 powerspike is definitely responsible for good majority of my solo kills in lane. When you reach level 5 and about 60-80% of experience one good trick to use is zone them towards the wave with your Q and then prematurely drop your combo on the wave immediately leveling up your Life Form Disintegration Ray which is at least going to cost them a Flash and in many cases give you a kill.
At this point you will have 3 points in W which will enable you to out-pressure even the stronger pushers in the game. Use that lane priority to get deeper wards on enemy raptors or river. Many junglers tend to be careless in solo Q and they feel overly safe in their jungle. Using your vision and knowledge you may be able to get a long range kill on some unsuspecting junglers. If you are unable to force your lead in lane and get a kill, try using your map vision to devise a nice roam. Vel’Koz roams tend to work great on side lanes due to map curvature and geometry. In many cases you are able to get a kill or an assist from the edge of the river which will cost you hardly any cs.

TEAMFIGHT

Vel’Koz is a high range, high damage, unique control/artillery mage. He is not a mechanically demanding champion but he does require you to have a lot of game knowledge. Most of Vel’Koz plays are created in your head in advance rather than reactionary. Based on a particular game and what you have observed, you need to imagine what you are going to do in certain scenarios. Playing Vel’Koz is very similar to playing chess. It's all about mind games and predicting what are your opponents options and most likely moves.
You are very vulnerable immobile mage, so in order to survive and make the most damage possible you will have to be playing the "counting game". That means paying attention and counting every single dash, flash, jump, etc..
Many of players think that in order to be a good Vel’Koz player you have to be good at hitting skillshots, but it goes way beyond that.
In order to truly master the TENTACLE, there are couple of keys.
First and most important you need to work on your game knowledge.
Second, you need to work on your positioning, which directly ties into your game knowledge.
Third, you need to work on your skillshots, which directly ties into your positioning.
In teamfights Vel’Koz very often plays a similar role to that of an ADC but with slightly more range.
For beginners and even experienced players good rule to go by is just to NOT die 4Head. That is a bit harder than you think because you will very often overreach and try to deal more damage than it is possible in certain scenarios. First try to analyze the threats. Who on the opponent team can kill you and how. You need to know how close you can get without compromising your life. You have built in true damage with your passive so focusing the frontline is actually not bad. Later on as you gain more game knowledge and experience you will be able to understand the win condition in almost every single game and thus modify your teamfight goal.
If you are doing an extremely good job in a specific game you will hardly ever have teamfights. In an optimal scenario you would be dancing right outside of the enemy team's engage range and dishing out poke.
Vel’Koz is insanely good at sieging turrets. If you maintain good position and you land decent amount of your poke, the opponents will be rendered useless under their turret. If they make a forced engage with low HP they will lose, if they back off they will lose the turret. Playing good poke/pick style will win many teamfights before they even start.

Combos

A lot of people don’t know this but Vel’Koz has an insane number of combos. Also yes, the Squid has animation cancelling, take that dirty Riven mains.
Your W is the only ability without casting animation and it can’t be used in a W+ Flash combo. But that makes it extremely useful as a prefix to other abilities. General fast combos are W+Q, W+E, W+R. There is a weird interaction between Q and E where if you cast it in that order Q animation can mask the E animation. So we can derive the absolutely fastest combo ever, W+Q+E+R done in that order. Shown how to do it in the video here!
Vel’Koz combos are a true art form and over the years I have found so many. I honestly spent a lot of time writing this but for the life of me I couldn’t match my combo guide video in writing form. You should definitely watch this, don’t mind my shit microphone and accent.

Season 10 tips

Season 10 seems to be more impacted by macro gameplay than Season 9. Vel'Koz is by no means a high impact champion or a hard carry champion but he can do a great job slowing the game down. Opponents will make mistakes. Your job is to not fall into desperation plays and further increase the enemy lead. You have to be the rock of your team, the anchor to slow the game down. If you manage to not die you can pretty much contest every objective opponents are trying to take. Biggest comebacks with Vel'Koz happen through great defenses, big plays on Dragon/Baron fights and steals. You can contest these objectives from fairly long range.

Skins

Original is the best, Arclight and Battlecast are awesome and we don’t talk about the third one. 4+ years without a skin, my eyes are getting dry from all the crying, I don’t even know how I can see anymore. I glued myself to the wall and put suction cups on my arms pretending I am a squid in the dark.

Closing words

Thank you for your time Squid enthusiast, I sincerely hope this guide was helpful and entertaining. It’s always a pleasure to convert people into Vel’Koz mains. Hopefully he gets a bit more attention from both player base and Riot in Season 10.
If you have any specific questions about anything I will try to answer here as much as possible, also I read every comment on my youtube and twitch.
submitted by Azzapp to summonerschool [link] [comments]

Cecil Rhodes modeled his 'Round Table' Society off of the Jesuits and gifted the Jesuits large plots of land!--One of them spawned brutal dictator Robert Mugabe

The following quotations come from Cecil Rhodes himself in the book The last will and testament of Cecil John Rhodes : with elucidatory notes to which are added some chapters describing the political and religious ideas of the testator, Cecil Rhodes, edited by W. T. Stead(1902) pg. 64, 66 : https://archive.org/details/lastwilltestamen00rhodiala_201902
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_Table_movement
" Please remember the key of my idea discussed with you is a Society, copied from the Jesuits as to organisation, the practical solution a differential rate and a copy of the United States Constitution, for that is Home Rule or Federation, and an organisation to work this out, working in the House of Commons for decentralisation, remembering that an Assembly that is responsible for a fifth of the world has no time to discuss the questions raised by Dr. Tanner or the important matter of Mr. O'Brien's breeches, and that the labour question is an important matter, but that deeper than the labour question is the question of the market for the products of labour, and that, as the local consumption (production) of England can only support about six millions, the balance depends on the trade of the world. That the world with America in the forefront is devising tariffs to boycott your manufactures, and that this is the supreme question, for I believe that England with fair play should manufacture for the world, and, being a Free Trader, I believe until the world comes to its senses you should declare war I mean a commercial war with those who are trying to boycott your manufactures that is my programme. You might finish the war by union with America and universal peace, I mean after one hundred years, and a secret society organised like Loyola's, supported by the accumulated wealth of those whose aspiration is a desire to do something, and a hideous annoyance created by the difficult question daily placed before their minds as to which of their incompetent relations they should leave their wealth to. You would furnish them with the solution, greatly relieving their minds and turning their ill-gotten or inherited gains to some advantage. "

The editor of the book, W.T. Stead also makes comments in this book about how Cecil Rhodes viewed Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits as a mentor!
pg. 56 : "Mr. Rhodes was more than the founder of a dynasty. He aspired to be the creator of one of those vast semi-religious, quasi-political associations which, like the Society of Jesus, have played so large a part in the history of the world. To be more strictly accurate, he wished to found an Order as the instrument of the will of the Dynasty, and while he lived he dreamed of being both its Caesar and its Loyola."
pg. 63 : " The English-speaking race stood to Mr. Rhodes for all that the Catholic Church stood to Ignatius Loyola. Mr. Rhodes saw in the English-speaking race the greatest instrument yet evolved for the progress and elevation of mankind shattered by internal dissensions and reft in twain by the declaration of American Independence, just as the unity of the Church was destroyed by the Protestant Reformation. Unlike Loyola, who saw that between Protestants and Catholics no union was possible, and who therefore devoted all his energies to enable the Catholics to extirpate their adversaries, Mr. Rhodes believed that it was possible to secure the reunion of the race. Loyola was an out-and-out Romanist. He took sides unhesitatingly with the Pope against the Reformers. The attitude of Mr. Rhodes was altogether different. He was' devoted to the old flag, but in his ideas he was American, and in his later years he expressed to me his unhesitating readiness to accept the reunion of the race under the Stars and Stripes if it could not be obtained in any other way. Although he had no objection to the Monarchy, he unhesitatingly preferred the American to the British Constitution, and the text-book which he laid down for the guidance of his novitiates was a copy of the American Constitution. Imagine the soul of an Erasmus in the skin of a Loyola ready to purchase the unity of Christendom by imposing upon the Pope the theses which Luther nailed upon the church door at Wittenberg, and you have some idea of the standpoint of Mr. Rhodes."
pg. 83 : " Mr. Rhodes's conception of his duties to his fellow-men rests upon a foundation as distinctly ethical and theistic as that of the old Puritans. If you could imagine an emperor of old Rome crossed with one of Cromwell's Ironsides, and the result brought up at the feet of Ignatius Loyola, you would have an amalgam not unlike that which men call Cecil Rhodes. The idea of the State, the Empire, and the supreme allegiance which it has a right to claim from all its subjects, is as fully developed in him as in Augustus or in Trajan."
pg. 85/86 : " His mind turned to religion. Was there to be found in the Churches a goal worth the devotion of a life ? Perhaps if it were true. But what if it were not ? He thought much of the marvellous career of Loyola, the man who underpinned the tottering foundations of the Catholic Church, and re-established them upon the rock of St. Peter, which had been shaken by the spiritual dynamite of the Reformation. There was a work worthy the best man's life. But nowadays who could believe in the Roman, or even in the Christian, creed ? * Every day some explorer dug up in Palestine some old inscription which made havoc with a Bible text a conclusion which the reports of the Palestine Exploration Fund certainly do not bear out, but that need not be discussed here."
pg. 139 : " Mr. Rhodes, however, had no reason to fear being tried by this ordeal. He does not emerge an immaculate saint, carved in the whitest of Parian marble. He is revealed not as an archangel of radiant stainless purity, but neither was he a cloven-footed devil. Judging him by his stature in influence, in authority and in driving force, he belonged to the order of archangels ; but he was a grey archangel, with a crippled wing, which caused him to pursue a somewhat devious course in the midst of the storm-winds of race-passion and political intrigue. A grey archangel crossed with a Jesuit, who was so devoted to his ends that almost all means were to him indifferent, excepting in so far as they helped him to attain his goal that is the man who is revealed to us in these speeches."

Cecil Rhodes founded the British South Africa Company, and the De Beers Group, two mega monopolies. De Beers, by the time Rhodes died in 1902, controlled 90% of the world's diamond production! His British South Africa company had enough influence to create a country, and it was named after himself--Cecil Rhodes (Rhodesia now Zimbabwe). Rhodes was in the forefront of the Round Table(Society of the Round Table) movement that spawned in the early 1900’s. The Society was immediately labeled as one that was seeking to create a new economic order for the international bankers--creating a free trade paradise for the super wealthy controlling the financial destiny of the masses. As quoted above in this post, Rhodes interestingly mentioned however that he wanted the Society to be modeled of the Jesuit order as to the organization of it. The Jesuits (The Society of Jesus, S.J.) are the largest Roman Catholic order in the world and are by far the richest. Cecil Rhodes says in the book The Last Testament and Will of Cecil Rhodes, pg. 64 (1902), that : “Please remember the key of my idea discussed with you is a Society, copied from the Jesuits as to organisation”. Speaking on his Society, (pg.66) Rhodes again alludes to the Jesuit Catholic influence on it : “I mean after one hundred years, and a secret society organised like Loyola's.” “Saint” Ignatius Loyola is the founder of the Jesuit order. Cecil Rhodes was gracious enough to donate 4 large plots of land to the Jesuits! Catholic Dominican priests and nuns were also used as chaplains to Rhodes’ British South Africa Company. This is cited in Changing Relations Between Churches in Europe and Africa, Katharina Kunter, (2008), pg. 137
" This wave of Catholic missionaries [in Zimbabwe] arrived with the Pioneer Column of European settlers, forming close links with them, which would influence the young Church's outlook and behavior. Cecil John Rhodes, the leader of the Pioneer Column, later offered the Jesuits four large farms and plots of land in the urban areas and the Catholic Church eventually became one of the biggest landholders in the country, owning nearly 190 000 acres.”.....”When In 1889-1890 the British South Africa Company (BSAC) was preparing to send miners and settlers to Mashonaland, Fr. Prestage who had previously abandoned the mission in Matebeleland, volunteered his services to them as chaplain and nurse and recruited some Dominican sisters as well.” https://books.google.ca/books?id=XlEGYEEuLMoC&pg=PA137&lpg=PA137&dq=Francis+Richartz+Chishawasha+Mission+cecil+rhodes&source=bl&ots=4OMWjydjaW&sig=97NV47v2ORsKe6nK4UYIQnajwig&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Francis%20Richartz%20Chishawasha%20Mission%20cecil%20rhodes&f=false

The Jesuits at America magazine also noted that : "In the early part of the 20th century, the Catholic Church, like many churches at the time, received land grants from the colonial administrators for missionary work. Cecil Rhodes, one of the entrepreneurial giants of the British colonial era, invited churches, the Catholic Church among them, into his newly acquired territories. Subsequently, the Catholic Church worked closely with colonial governments, particularly in British Africa, to provide education and health care for the local populations." https://www.americamagazine.org/issue/363/article/catholic-church-and-zambias-elections

One of these plots of land gifted to the Jesuits from Cecil Rhodes is where the black supremacist dictator Robert Mugabe grew up. This is very ironic considering Cecil Rhodes was a white supremacist who contributed almost more than anyone else, to the establishment of the white (Anglo-Saxon) Apartheid governments in Southern Africa. In the light of the shooting of George Floyd and the racial protests worldwide, there have been numerous calls for statues of Cecil Rhodes to be taken down. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/rhodes-statue-down-oxford-university-black-lives-matter-a9571896.html This also shows how the Jesuits control both sides of the extremes of racism. I recommend the reader read Slavery and Catholicism, by Richard Roscoe Miller (1957) for a documented expose of how the Roman Catholic Church controlled the African slave trade : https://archive.org/details/slaveryandcatholicismrichardroscoemiller1957 I have also documented the shameful enslavement of the Congolese by Roman Catholic Belgium in a post here titled Roman Catholic Wall Street Titan, Thomas Fortune Ryan, was financing Roman Catholic King Leopold II's Genocide in the Belgian Congo : https://www.reddit.com/Jesuitworldordecomments/f4vehq/roman_catholic_wall_street_titan_thomas_fortune/ So we see in Zimbabwe that it was the Jesuits who accompanied the white settlers in their endeavors to steal and loot the land from the native black populous, and then it was the Jesuits again who backed the black supremacist movements who then after taking power in the person of Robert Mugabe reversed the racial persecutions, with white farmers now the ones being looted and pillaged from. Mugabe also looted billions of dollars from the treasury and Zimbabwe experienced the worst hyperinflation ever, under his watch. Talk about a Hegelian dialectic! https://qz.com/africa/1152276/zimbabwes-white-farmers-kicked-out-by-mugabe-will-be-compensated-by-mnangagwa/ , https://www.dw.com/en/zimbabwe-ex-president-robert-mugabes-stolen-fortune/a-41504122

We read these revealing revelations in the book Mugabe : Power, Plunder, and the Struggle for Zimbabwe,Martin Meredith (2007) pg. 20,21,22 : https://archive.org/details/Mugabe
" Like many other African independence leaders, such as Tanzania’s Julius Nyerere and Zambia’s Kenneth Kaunda, Robert Mugabe was a product of the missionary system. From early childhood, his mentor had been the Catholic Church. He was born on February 21, 1924, in the “Christian village” at Kutama Mission in the Zvimba district, west of Salisbury, established by Jesuit Fathers for Africans who had been baptised. Both his parents were mission trained: His father was a carpenter; his mother, Bona, was a devout and pious woman who taught the catechism and the Bible. His Jesuit teachers were strict disciplinarians, and Mugabe himself developed a belief in the need for self-discipline that was almost puritanical in its intensity. “I was brought up by the Jesuits and I’m most grateful,” he recalled. “I benefited from their teaching enormously.” At one stage, his mother thought he might become a priest. Catholic missionaries had set up their first “Christian village” at Chishawasha Mission on land given to them by Cecil Rhodes’s private commercial enterprise, the British South Africa Company, which had declared the occupation of Mashonaland in 1890 in the name of Queen Victoria. The land was a reward for the role the Jesuits had played in accompanying the Pioneer Column of white settlers that Rhodes had sent across the Limpopo River to search for gold and extend the realms of the British Empire. Like all the land that Rhodes handed out to white settlers, the land at Chishawasha—some 12,000 acres—was acquired by dispossessing the local population. When the Shona rebellion against white rule broke out in 1896, only six years after the Union Jack had been hoisted near a hill called Harare, the mission station at Chishawasha, along with hundreds of white farms, was engulfed in the violence. Once the rebellion had been suppressed, the Jesuits returned to Chishawasha, establishing a self-sufficient Christian farming community there. They built a school, a clinic, workshops, and a compound for African Christian families. Jesuits taught skilled trades such as carpentry, stonemasonry, shoemaking, and horticulture, while Dominican nuns concentrated on domestic science and child care. Chishawasha soon became a model for other mission stations that the Catholic Church established throughout Rhodesia. Kutama Mission, an offshoot of Chishawasha, achieved a particular distinction. When Mugabe was seven years old, an Irish Jesuit, Father Jerome O’Hea, took charge as the new supervisor. A strong believer in education as the key to emancipation, he devoted his efforts and much of his personal fortune to founding a teacher training school and a hospital. Kutama’s reputation soon spread far afield, attracting students from across Rhodesia and from neighbouring countries...... The bright youngster(Mugabe) soon came to the attention of Father O’Hea. After he had completed six grades of elementary education, Father O’Hea offered Mugabe a course in his teacher training school, helping him pay his tuition fees with his own funds. “I would have kept him for nothing because of his influence over the other boys. Before long he was teaching his classmates how to teach.” As well as instructing Mugabe on the catechism and Cartesian logic, Father O’Hea gave him a feel for Irish legend and revolution, describing the struggle the Irish had sustained to attain independence from Britain. Shortly before his death in 1970, Father O’Hea recalled how Mugabe possessed what he called “an exceptional mind and an exceptional heart.” Mugabe in turn acknowledged the formative influence of Father O’Hea. During the Lancaster House conference in London in 1979, he told a priest with whom he was friendly that one day he would like to pray at O’Hea’s grave."

A Jesuit priest Fidelis Mukonori S.J. interestingly "mediated" the transition from Mugabe rule in Zimbabwe in 2017: https://www.cnn.com/2017/11/24/africa/mugabe-resignation-mediated-by-priest/index.html
submitted by Ainsoph777 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Challenger Vel'Koz Guide by Azzapp

Azzapp's Challenger Vel'Koz guide

About me

I’m Azzapp, a streamer content creator primarily focused on Vel’Koz. I have been playing league since s1, played competitively amateur scene s5/s6. I’ve played Vel’Koz since he came out in season 4, and have done many guides/coaching sessions on him. During season 9 I have hit Challenger on 3 different servers and 3 different pings. EUW(~70), EUNE(~60) and NA(~150). My Tiple Challenger AMA post : https://www.reddit.com/leagueoflegends/comments/c9x4em/hi_im_azzapp_and_ive_reached_challenger_season_9/

Why Vel’Koz

I have always found characters with tentacle badass [insert tentacle hentai joke here]. That probably stems from the fear of the depths, underwater weird moving creatures, fortified by H. P. Lovecraft Cthulhu mythos. Anyway I believe he has one of the best if not the best champion designs in the game. Ever since I saw the First Contact trailer I was hooked. Everything about this champion is awesome, incredible and unique lore, a trailer so good it gives you the goosebumps, voice that send shivers down your spine, mind blowing visual and particle effects design.
Those were my initial thoughts when I saw the champion get released. I prayed that he is going to be as epic as I had imagined in the game as well.
There I was finally playing my newfound favorite champion with a grin from ear to ear. I didn’t even realize the fact that the champion sucks. When he got release he had practically no AP scaling, he was weak and vulnerable and pretty damn complex to master. The fact that no one thought he was viable didn’t even phase me one bit. I was blinded by the champions design that I couldn’t care whether he is good in game or not. I just kept playing until I figured out a lot of tricks that make Vel’Koz pretty alright. I was very motivated to show people that Vel’Koz can actually be viable.
Vel’Koz is one of the most unique characters in league of legends. He is something between artillery and a control mage. His Q can be used in plethora of ways. 360 degrees to decide the direction and the ability to reactivate at any point in time. His initial Q range is 1050 and reactivated Q range is 1100. Due to the slight difference the maximum range is achieved with roughly 46.33 degree angle with range =~1520. It’s also important to note that second stage Q is faster which comes into play with some combos. One of the first and most simple yet beautiful tricks is the Q+R combo. We will go very deep into combos later on.

Runes

Vel’Koz runes since runes reforged have been pretty much stable. There are potential 3 setups I like to use. If you are a beginner you are interested in only one in my opinion. The most common one and the optimal one is Arcane Comet Vel’Koz.

Arcane Comet

Arcane comet is the best keystone for Vel’koz, it enables you to go Sorcery tree which has great synergy with Vel’koz. You will mostly be poking with Q which guarantees Comet damage. It just very stable and solid playstyle which is always useful.

Manaflow band/ Nullifying Orb

Manaflow band is the standard for laning. It has great mana value, stacks up quite easily and once stacked provides extra mana regen for more spam.
Nullifying Orb is the defensive option here, usually used if you are laning vs very aggressive casters like Fizz.

Transcendence

You are a caster with 4 skillshots. More W spam = more wave control., More Q = more poke and combo setup, More E = less downtime when you can play aggressive. More R = MORE DISINTEGRATION.

Scorch/ Gathering Storm

Scorch is used for early game domination. Has really good synergy with Comet poke. More suited for poking playstyle since it can proc only once every 10s.
Gathering Storm takes a while to get going and is completely useless for the first 10 minutes. That being said in an all in combo it outscales Scorch after only 10 minutes. After 20 it gives 500 gold worth of AP, 1000 at 30…
For secondary runes here there are 2 playstyles. You can go aggressive(Domination) and passive(Inspiration). To the Vel’Koz beginners I always suggest Inspiration since survival is #1 priority. You would be surprised how many champions will one shot you without any skillshots in current meta.

Magical Footwea Perfect Timing

All Vel’Koz skillshots are directly tied to his model so the faster you move the more you can land. Magical footwear provides great value and can also help you kite easier.
Stopwatch is an immobile squishy mages best friend. Getting one for free is great 10/10.

Cosmic Insight

Cooldown reduction is one of the most useful stats on mid lane Vel'Koz. Any type of CDR is extremely powerful and increases your impact in teamfights.

Taste of Blood

If you decide to go the more aggressive snowballing route, Taste of Blood is great tool for short trades. Technically Cheap Shot would help you secure even more kills but the numbers are just not that great, so healing provides way more value.

Ultimate Hunter

Insanely fun to stack and gives you way more ultimate uses per game. Paired up with season 10 Cloud Dragon your ultimate can reach 21 seconds cooldown. Collecting ADC tears has never been faster!
Others are Glacial Augment, Dark Harvest.

Glacial Augment

Glacial Augment works great in difficult match ups such as Yasuo, Zed, Qiyana especially if enemy comp is mostly AD. It essentially crunches the skill ceiling making the champion easier to play but making it hard to distinguish good players vs great players. In that case you are more of a supporting character trying to control teamfights and set your team up.
Usual build would be corrupting -> dark seal, lost chapter -> GLP -> Sorcery boots -> Zhonya’s -> Morello.
For runes you would want Stopwatch -> Future’s Market -> Time warp tonic into Domination (Cheap shot/taste of blood -> Ingenious Hunter).

Dark Harvest

Dark Harvest is probably my favorite Vel’koz setup. On release it was incredible and a bit overtuned. Then it went through 2 nerfs which made it barely viable, and only so on Support role. If you can manage 5 stacks per 10 minutes then it outscales the comet. Obviously the downside is a bit weaker early game but Dark Harvest having a reset on takedown can be incredibly rewarding for solo q.
Usual build would be Spellthief -> Dark seal, Boots -> Boots of Mobility -> Twin Shadows -> Liandry’s Torment.
For runes you would want Taste of blood - > Eyeball Collection -> Relentless Hunter into Sorcery( Manaflow Band -> Celerity)

Electrocute

Electrocute is decent for trading and it is the successor of the previously best rune for Vel’Koz “Thunderlord’s decree”. The issue with Electrocute is that it’s difficult to proc. It can work in some melee match ups depending on your playstyle but I’m not a huge fan.

Predator

Predator I used to use in jungle but with jungle changes for season 10 Vel’Koz has harder time getting to 6. Don’t recommend you do it... a lot.
There is also a viable Predator mid lane roaming playstyle. It works alright with the season changes and plates being worth less. In case you have a hard match up mid you would like to avoid completely you can use this build. Maxing out W and spamming it to clear waves fast then looking for roams.

Summoner Spells

Flash

Using an immobile squishy mage without flash is begging to get ran over by almost every champion in the game. Also flash is extremely potent if you want to prefix it with an ability(Q,E or R). More on that here![animation cancelling guide]

Barrier

The most common one in mid lane and support. The sheer strength of barrier and low cooldown provide really good value and a dose of safety.

Heal

Heal is used as a different version of safety. Has a bit longer cooldown and less hp value then barrier but it’s used if it can make it up in movement speed or helping teammates. Usual match ups where I go heal instead are: Cassiopeia, Viktor, Orianna..

Skill order

Skill order is one of the most debated things about Vel’Koz. Maxing Q gives you higher burst and kill potential but weaker wave management. On the other hand maxing W gives you better wave control but less kill potential. Over the years of playing Vel’Koz I have devised a skill order which I believe to be optimal in most cases. I like putting 3 points in W by level 5 which gives you just enough pushing power and helps you through the early game when Vel’Koz isn't the strongest and you wouldn't be going for kill anyway. After 3 points in W I proceed with maxing Q to increase the slow duration and burst potential. Obviously you will be getting points in R when available and after maxing Q you will proceed with maxing W.

Abilities

Passive

Organic Deconstruction is an extremely important mechanic in your kit when playing Vel’Koz. To deal optimal damage you should be basing your trades around your passive. In the best case scenario you will land 9 stacks on the opponent which is 3 true damage rotations. For quick trades you should be looking to proc Organic Deconstruction at least once. People will rarely respect your stacks especially if you only applied one, but sometimes only 1 stack is enough to enable your play. You should check out the combo guide for more.

Q – Plasma Fission

Plasma Fission is the most unique ability for Vel’koz. Manipulating the reactivation of your Q open up a whole new world of play making. It is the catalyst in 90% of Vel’koz plays. However mastering the shooting and reactivation is only a part of it. Because of it’s geometrical/trigonometrical nature, Plasma Fission is directly connected to your positioning. Getting into good positions will make extremely difficult shots into check mate scenarios where your Q is impossible to dodge.

W – Void Rift

Void Rift is the only basic ability in Vel’Koz kit which has the potential to apply more than 1 stack of Organic Deconstruction. It is mostly used for pushing, wave management and follow up to Plasma Fission or Tectonic Disruption. It is extremely hard to hit both part of W on it’s own, but it boosts your damage output heavily if you can set it up.

E – Tectonic Disruption

Tectonic Disruption is the only form of hard CC Vel’Koz has. Landing E enables you to dish out your full combo but missing it can be devastating for your mana pool and pressure in lane. It is best to use it after landing Plasma Fission which greatly increases your chance of succeeding. Tectonic Disruption is also your only disengage ability and it is very crucial not to waste it against assassins because it will render you vulnerable for the next 10-15 seconds.

R – Life Form Disintegration Ray

Life Form Disintegration Ray is by far the most powerful Vel’Koz ability and it definitely packs a punch, but it is by no means overpowered. There are 2 keys to using your R properly. First you have to account for all the potential disruptions because you are extremely vulnerable during the channeling time. Secondly, to get the most out of Life Form Disintegration Ray you have to manage the stacks of your passive. It is best used just after the first rotation granting you true damage for the full channel and one extra proc of Organic Deconstruction.

Items

Doran's Ring

Doran’s ring is the perfect starting item for Vel’koz It provides you with all the stats you need during your laning phase.

Dark Seal

Dark Seal is a great item to get on your first buy. It will slow your build a little bit but it's value will skyrocket throughout the game. Since Vel’Koz is relatively safe champion and has to keep good positioning at all times it will be easy to get stacks. At 10 stacks it’s value is ~1000 gold which gives it 300% efficiency.

Lost Chapter

Lost Chapter is the core for Vel’Koz no matter your playstyle. Getting it with the Dark Seal on your first buy will set you up for any game. After that you can choose to upgrade it to either Luden’s Echo, GLP or Archangel’s staff or you can even delay it and buy items you desperately need at that moment, like Banshee’s Veil or Zhonya’s Hourglass.

Luden’s Echo

Luden’s Echo is the optimal to rush as Vel’Koz. It has insane synergy with Sorcery tree and later on Liandry’s Torment. In the late game just hitting a minion near an opponent will dish out substantial amount of poke.

Archangel’s Staff

Archangel’s Staff is a safer counterpart to the Luden’s Echo. It has a bit slower powerspike so I don't recommend it in solo Q unless it is absolutely necessary.

Sorcerer’s Shoes

Sorcerer’s Shoes are obviously the best boots in terms of the burst potential. That being said they are not always the optimal choice. Vel’koz damage output consists of ~20-25% true damage which makes the magic penetration only ~75-80% effective. Magic penetration is not the core for Vel’koz so don't be afraid to adapt with your boots. Ionian Boots of Lucidity, Ninja Tabi, Mercury’s Treads are all good choices depending on the situation.

Liandry’s Torment

Liandry’s Torment is a good second item to buy in terms of raw damage output if opponents don't have too many heals like Soraka or Vladimir In that case you are better off building Morello.

Morllomonomnomicon

Morellonomicon works best in situations where opponents don't have too much magic resistance and/or they have a lot of healing/sustaining abilities.

Twin Shadows

Twin Shadows is an extremely cheap third item but it gives everything Vel’Koz needs. This item is a blessing against immobile targets and it makes your snowballing that much easier. It also helps you control the map providing pick potential and better control of sieges, dragon and baron fights.

EL SOMBRERO MORITFERO DE RABADON

EL SOMBRERO MORITFERO DE RABADON is obviously the best item in terms of raw AP and damage output, but it's very hard to build. It consists of 3 parts that are over 1000 gold and sometimes building it can take too much time without any powerspikes. You have to choose carefully when you want to get it, and if you do pick a good time, disintegration is assured.

Void Staff

Void Staff, despite it's name, it doesn't have the best synergy with Vel’Koz. We have previously stated that it will only be 80% effective than it would've on other chamnpions. That being said it is still a good 5th or 6th item if the opponents have plenty of magic resistance.

Zhonya’s Hourglass

Zhonya’s Hourglass is in most cases built as a reaction to opponents. The stats it offers aren't that good for Vel’Koz, but the stasis effect can very often be the difference between living or dying.

Banshee’s Veil

Banshee’s Veil is yet another situational item. It gives a little bit better stats than Hourglass and the magic shield will allow you to position more aggressively and it might save you while channeling Life Form Disintegration Ray.

Mejai’s Soulstealer

Mejai’s Soulstealer is a very underrated item and my favorite. It uses the similar logic to the Dark Seal. It's value becomes insane at 15+ stacks. I particularly like this item because when you buy it you instantly have to play better, it forces you to make less mistakes and die less in general.

GAMEPLAY

In most cases at level 1 you will want to take Q. It is more reliable for farming early game, less mana consumption and you might get some poke damage.
Early game as Vel’koz you're pretty safe and you will most likely not get ganked before 3 minutes so you want to make as much as pressure as you can. You are at your best when you are pressuring enemy and holding him on the ropes.
In some match up-s like Azir, Xerath, Aurelion Sol, Taliyah etc. you will not be able to outpush so picking up W level 1 and minion dematerializer can save you from taking a lot of damage trying to control the waves.
Vel'Koz is a champion that scales very well with levels, so you have to try and take advantage of spikes for level 2,3 and 6 during the laning phase. If you are controlling the waves and having slightly more pressure than the opponent, that means when you get close to a level up you can get it way sooner than the enemy.
Level 2 spike will rarely kill since you only have Q and W available to you so in best case scenario you will get 2 rotations of your passive but it might just be enough to give you a good lead in lane or even force a summoner spell.
Level 3 spike works in a similar way except you have access to your only hard cc ability making you more of a threat and better at setting up a gank. At this point it is possible to make enemy use Flash defensively.
Up until this point Vel’Koz was a relatively weak champion, even if you landed poke it wouldn't have been that impactful. From level 3 and on you gain more and more control.
Level 6 powerspike is definitely responsible for good majority of my solo kills in lane. When you reach level 5 and about 60-80% of experience one good trick to use is zone them towards the wave with your Q and then prematurely drop your combo on the wave immediately leveling up your Life Form Disintegration Ray which is at least going to cost them a Flash and in many cases give you a kill.
At this point you will have 3 points in W which will enable you to out-pressure even the stronger pushers in the game. Use that lane priority to get deeper wards on enemy raptors or river. Many junglers tend to be careless in solo Q and they feel overly safe in their jungle. Using your vision and knowledge you may be able to get a long range kill on some unsuspecting junglers. If you are unable to force your lead in lane and get a kill, try using your map vision to devise a nice roam. Vel’Koz roams tend to work great on side lanes due to map curvature and geometry. In many cases you are able to get a kill or an assist from the edge of the river which will cost you hardly any cs.

TEAMFIGHT

Vel’Koz is a high range, high damage, unique control/artillery mage. He is not a mechanically demanding champion but he does require you to have a lot of game knowledge. Most of Vel’Koz plays are created in your head in advance rather than reactionary. Based on a particular game and what you have observed, you need to imagine what you are going to do in certain scenarios. Playing Vel’Koz is very similar to playing chess. It's all about mind games and predicting what are your opponents options and most likely moves.
You are very vulnerable immobile mage, so in order to survive and make the most damage possible you will have to be playing the "counting game". That means paying attention and counting every single dash, flash, jump, etc..
Many of players think that in order to be a good Vel’Koz player you have to be good at hitting skillshots, but it goes way beyond that.
In order to truly master the TENTACLE, there are couple of keys.
First and most important you need to work on your game knowledge.
Second, you need to work on your positioning, which directly ties into your game knowledge.
Third, you need to work on your skillshots, which directly ties into your positioning.
In teamfights Vel’Koz very often plays a similar role to that of an ADC but with slightly more range.
For beginners and even experienced players good rule to go by is just to NOT die 4Head. That is a bit harder than you think because you will very often overreach and try to deal more damage than it is possible in certain scenarios. First try to analyze the threats. Who on the opponent team can kill you and how. You need to know how close you can get without compromising your life. You have built in true damage with your passive so focusing the frontline is actually not bad. Later on as you gain more game knowledge and experience you will be able to understand the win condition in almost every single game and thus modify your teamfight goal.
If you are doing an extremely good job in a specific game you will hardly ever have teamfights. In an optimal scenario you would be dancing right outside of the enemy team's engage range and dishing out poke.
Vel’Koz is insanely good at sieging turrets. If you maintain good position and you land decent amount of your poke, the opponents will be rendered useless under their turret. If they make a forced engage with low HP they will lose, if they back off they will lose the turret. Playing good poke/pick style will win many teamfights before they even start.

Combos

A lot of people don’t know this but Vel’Koz has an insane number of combos. Also yes, the Squid has animation cancelling, take that dirty Riven mains.
Your W is the only ability without casting animation and it can’t be used in a W+ Flash combo. But that makes it extremely useful as a prefix to other abilities. General fast combos are W+Q, W+E, W+R. There is a weird interaction between Q and E where if you cast it in that order Q animation can mask the E animation. So we can derive the absolutely fastest combo ever, W+Q+E+R done in that order. Shown how to do it in the video here!
Vel’Koz combos are a true art form and over the years I have found so many. I honestly spent a lot of time writing this but for the life of me I couldn’t match my combo guide video in writing form. You should definitely watch this, don’t mind my shit microphone and accent.

Season 10 tips

Season 10 seems to be more impacted by macro gameplay than Season 9. Vel'Koz is by no means a high impact champion or a hard carry champion but he can do a great job slowing the game down. Opponents will make mistakes. Your job is to not fall into desperation plays and further increase the enemy lead. You have to be the rock of your team, the anchor to slow the game down. If you manage to not die you can pretty much contest every objective opponents are trying to take. Biggest comebacks with Vel'Koz happen through great defenses, big plays on Dragon/Baron fights and steals. You can contest these objectives from fairly long range.

Skins

Original is the best, Arclight and Battlecast are awesome and we don’t talk about the third one. 4+ years without a skin, my eyes are getting dry from all the crying, I don’t even know how I can see anymore. I glued myself to the wall and put suction cups on my arms pretending I am a squid in the dark.

Closing words

Thank you for your time Squid enthusiast, I sincerely hope this guide was helpful and entertaining. It’s always a pleasure to convert people into Vel’Koz mains. Hopefully he gets a bit more attention from both player base and Riot in Season 10.
If you have any specific questions about anything I will try to answer here as much as possible, also I read every comment on my youtube and twitch.
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